- Estey Organ Music
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Estey Organ Roll Catalog Volume 1
HTML copy: Produced by David Back. August 2017.
(Published circa 1925)
From an original copy of "A Catalogue of Music for the ESTEY ORGAN"
This document is searchable.
1.0 THE ESTEY RESIDENCE ORGANOf all the musical instruments produced by man the three most distinguished are the violin, the piano and the pipe organ. Of these the violin still remains the instrument of the virtuoso. No method of playing it has yet been invented except by the slow and tedious process of acquiring technique. It is the instrument of the accomplished musician.
But self-playing devices have been applied successfully to both the piano and the organ-but with this difference. Piano music derives some of its quality from the personality of the player. The touch of human fingers has never been exactly reproduced by mechanical devices. In some compositions the piano player equals the pianist, but not in all.
The pipe organ, on the contrary, is made for automatic playing. There is nothing the organist can do with his hands or his feet that cannot be duplicated by machinery. When an organ manual is touched the resulting tone is the same, whether the touch be hard or soft, slow or quick. The tone continues in the same volume until the key is released. Brilliancy, variety and other differentqualities are obtained by other sets of pipes, and these pipes are brought into play by the stops. These stops can be brought on at the proper place by mechanical power just as effectively as by human fingers. If the organ music is correctly cut in the music roll, with all the stops, couplers and swells operated at their proper places, the most delicate ear cannot distinguish between the human organist and the mechanical organist.
Moreover, there is a quite general belief among musical people that the organ is the greatest musical instrument. It embraces all the instruments of the orchestra-even the violin and the piano. It approximates the human voice with wonderful fidelity. It has qualities which no other instrument has; tones which no other instrument produces.
Realizing all these things, we set about making this great instrument furnish the music of the home. We have been organ builders for several generations. We knew the qualities of the organ. We knew its history. It has been installed in homes, great baronial halls, palaces, castles in the past. But then it required the services of a resident organist. Nor was it in those days so great an instrument as it is today. Bach wrote organ music which could not be played upon the organ as he knew it. But he also knew the organ would develop. It has. Not only did it develop musically as Bach dreamed. It attained possibilities Bach never dreamed. By means of the self-playing device anyone may now play upon the pipe organ Bach's most difficult composition.
That is why we commenced to build the Estey Residence Organ. In a country like this, with its rapidly increasing wealth, its new homes of an almost palatial character being built daily, the necessary cost of a pipe organ was negligible when weighed beside its possibilities. Features were being added to these homes whose only purpose was to heighten the pleasurable richness of living in them, that cost as much as the most complete pipe organ.
Our belief has been justified. The Estey Residence Organ is more and more becoming a part of the furnishing of the well-appointed house. It gives to its proud owner the control of an orchestra-not the passive pleasure of listening to a paid professional organist, not the occasional performance of some musical guest, but his own instrument that he plays at will, with the satisfying consciousness that what he plays could not be excelled by either the paid organist or the obliging guest.
This pleasure never palls. The cost of the Estey Residence Organ is forgotten while the satisfaction it gives endures. It is in a business sense a sound investment. The pipe organ improves with age, and the upkeep is nominal. It becomes a permanent part of the home. It will last as long as the house lasts, and it enhances the value of the house. In the hands of a skillful architect or designer it becomes a beautiful addition to the music room, living room or hall.
2.0 MUSIC FOR THE ESTEY ORGANThe music listed in this catalogue has been especially arranged with the greatest care for the Estey Residence Organ. It cannot be used on any other instrument. The music and the organ are worked out together and to fit each other. A corps of competent musicians is constantly at work producing music for the Estey Residence Organ and frequent bulletins are issued describing new compositions. From time to time additional volumes will be added to this catalogue, with the compositions classified and arranged in a convenient manner for easy reference.
The compositions are catalogued alphabetically under two headings-by composers and by titles. The composers are also arranged in alphabetical order in the body of the catalogue. It has not been thought necessary to further classify under character of composition, such as opera, oratorio, especially since many compositions fall in more than one class.
The musical library of the Estey Residence Organ will continue to grow, guided partly by the tastes of the owners of the organs, and partly by our desire to present an adequate representation of the great and wonderful music available for the purpose. When a piece of music has been arranged for the Estey Organ at the request of any organ owner, that piece will be put into the bulletin, and subsequently into the catalogue, and will be available to any owner who cares for it.
In selecting the compositions for arrangement, we have tried to cover a range that would meet the varying tastes of lovers of the organ, and our plan is to meet individual requirements as far as possible. We are ready to arrange any composition which a customer may desire, and this can be done with surprising promptness. We have kept in mind music especially suited to the home and such as would provide for almost any occasion, while at the same time furnishing a rather unusual opportunity for becoming familiar with the works of the greatest composers. Musical compositions can be studied with great thoroughness by the use of the Estey Organist, as the themes can be separated from the accompaniment and each studied separately.
3.0 HOW TO PLAY THE ORGANThere are three ways of playing every music roll. The first is with no effort on the part of the operator, beyond inserting the roll and starting the mechanism. In this way the perforations in the paper bring on and change the selection of stops and combinations at the proper places in the composition, and operate all the expression devices and the phrasing.
With the second method the piece is pJayed with the proper stop combinations and expression devices operated by the perforations in the paper, while the operator introduces his own ideas of phrasing.
A third way permits the operator to use his own selection of registration and gives him complete control over all the expression devices except the actual playing of the notes.
None of these interferes with the playing of the organ by the hands and feet in the usual way.
There is nothing intricate or mysterious about the mechanism. It is simply an application of wellproven mechanical principles for many years standard with all organ construction, but perfected and refined. A brief description of the action is given for information and guidance in order that the owner may clearly understand just what is done and why.
Select the roll to be played, unfasten the cord, being sure that the paper is tightly rolled on the spool, and insert the pin in the left-hand end of the music roll in the spring receptacle at the top of the tracker box, letting the right-end pin engage in the slotted chuck at the opposite end of the tracker box. With the hand revolve the bottom or take-up roll until the hook in the center groove is in front, where the ring on the music can be easily attached. Revolve this roll, pulling off the paper from the spool so as to completely cover all of the holes or throats in the tracker bar, being sure that the paper is centered on the tracker bar. Then close the glass slide and press the "on" piston marked "To Play." This permits a pressure of wind to enter the closed tracker box. Put the music in motion by moving the tempo pointer toward the right. As soon as the number noting the tempo of the composition is visible on the music roll, set the pointer on that number. When a perforation in the paper comes over a hole or throat in the tracker bar the wind fills this throat and tube leading from it and causes a small poppet at the back of the console to lift and complete an electric circuit. From then on, the action is that of the hand-and-foot played organ.
At the end of the selection a perforation registers with a throat which controls the reverse mechanism and the music roll is rewound. At the same time the wind is shut off from the tracker box and all stops and combinations which have been used are cancelled, all parts of the organ remaining at rest. When the rewinding is complete, the spool stops and may be removed and another inserted, in the same manner as before.
When it is desired to operate the stops and ex· pression devices by hand, the piston on the right of the tempo plate marked "Stop Control" should be in the "off" position. That is, the "off" piston should be down. It should be remembered that the stop controlled perforations in the paper are inoperative if this "off" piston is down. Inversely, when the paper is to control the registration and expression devices, the stop control piston "on" must be down.
Never try to open the glass slide when wind pressure is in the tracker box. This wind pressure is controlled by the pistons marked "To Play," "on" and "off." It will be found that the "off" piston is automatically pushed down when the roll is being rewound and when the organ is at rest. Care should be taken to protect the tracker box from dust as far as possible.
4.0 CATALOGUE OF MUSIC
BACH, Johann Sebastian 1685-1750Leaving the name Bach out of the history of music, there would be no history of music. This very numerous family were prominent members of their profession for a period of nearly two hundred years, and so closely were they allied with the development of musical art that the first sentence of this paragraph becomes a truism. In all history there is not so remarkable an example of heredity, or so strong a refutation of the seemingly well-founded idea that genius never repeats.
The real musical ancestor of the family was Hans Bach, who was born about 1580 and died in 1626. Hans had three sons deserving of mention as musicians. One of these, Christoph, had three famous sons, one of whom, Johann Ambrosius, was destined to become the father of our subject, in whom the spark of genius grew to a brilliance which is still undimmed, nay which has grown brighter through the years. His first lessons were given him by his father, on the violin. At the age of ten both his parents died. leaving him and his education in the care of his brother, Johann Christoph, an organist at Ohrdruf. The genius of the boy now displayed itself unmistakably, and he progressed with a rapidity which was not encouraged by his brother. The use of a valuable volume of manuscript of Frohberger, Buxtchude and other celebrated composers was forbidden to the boy, who surreptitiously obtained it and copied it by moonlight, spending six months at it. When the stern and inhuman brother discovered what the youth had done, he took away from him his hardly earned treasure.
Bach became a very great organist and was fortunate in having his genius recognized and appreciated during his life. His move to Leipzig in 1723 was one of the most important events in his life, as it gave him a position where his duties were not so exacting that he could not devote the necessary time to composition. He also found a musical atmosphere which he had not known before. These ideal conditions undoubtedly helped him produce the great works of this period, which are among his greatest.
Many of Bach's contemporaries were skilled in the art of polyphonic writing, and their work will stand as exacting scrutiny from a standpoint of workmanship. It is the musical test, however which places Bach above all his predecessors and contemporaries. Schumann referred to Bach as the man "to whom music owes almost as great a debt as a religion does to its founder."
216 Toccata in FNever was, nor will be, a greater toccata written than this. To say it is the greatest of Bach's, is the same as saying it is the greatest of all. Words fail to describe it. It must be heard not once or twice, but a dozen or twenty times before its true greatness dawns upon one. It is great musically, but marvelous structurally, and worthy the study necessary to fathom its depths.
270 Gavotte from Sixth English SuiteTradition has it that the six English suites were written for an English patron of Bach's and in the absence of any reliable data on the subject, this guess is probably as good as any that could be made. Bach wrote some French Suites also. The Gavotte from the sixth English Suite is a fine example of a form which was much in vogue in Bach's time, and a form in which Bach was especially skillful. The usual Musette is present and serves as a delightful contrast to the Gavotte proper.
284 Gavotte from Orchestral Suite in DWhile the Gavotte is a dance tune of French origin, Bach's work along this line was in no way inferior to that of his French contemporaries. This Gavotte differs somewhat in form from the general plan, in that there are two separate Gavottes, the latter one replacing the Musette. In both forms, however, the first part is always the concluding part also.
BACHMANN, GeorgesThere is very little record available of this composer. He wrote a large number of piano pieces, many of which won popularity among lover, of music. He was born about 1848; died in Paris in 1894
299 Les SylphesThis is a familiar waltz which was very popular with music lovers of the last generation. It is delightfully effective on the organ and is full of grace and charm throughout.
BALFE, Michael William 1806-1870This writer of so many of our favorite longs was born in Dublin. May 15, 1808. As early as the season of 1814-1815 he was the capable violinist of the dancing class of which his father was instructor. At seven years of age he wrote a polacca and scored it for Military Band. At the death of his father he became the pupil of Chas. Edward Horn, a singer. Later he was engaged to play in the orchestra at Drury Lane, where he at times led the orchestra. In 1825 he went to Italy under the patronage of Count Mazzara. Here he studied counterpoint and ringing. also writing a successful ballet, "La Perouse." In his twentieth year he visited Paris, and was introduced to Rossini, who was then director of the Italian Opera. Rossini soon discovered hia talent and offered him an engagement for three year, as principal baritone on the condition that he take a preparatory course with Bordogni. His first appearance was as Figaro in the "Barbiere," and was a decided success. From now on he led a life of great industry, singing the baritone roles of all the great operas, and comporing at an astonishing rate. He died October 2O, 1870, leaving behind a list of twenty-nine operas-twenty-one English, five Italian and three French.
330 Then You'll Remember MeThis is a very well-known number from the "Bohemian Girl," which is by far the best known of Balfe's operas. It is a cavatina in form, and occurs in the third act. It is so well known that a description is not only unnecessary, but would not be complimentary to music lovers.
258 Mother MachreePerhaps the most popular of the many Irish ballads which have been written in recent years.
BARNBY, Joseph 1838-1896Sir Joseph Barnby was the son of an English organist, Thomas Barnby. He was bom at York on the 12th of August, 1838, and was a chorister at the age of seven. In 1862 he was appointed organist of St. Andrew's. London, and the services at this church became famous under his direction. He is chiefly known for his numerous compositions in choral form. His works include an oratorio-"Rebekah"-and two hundred and forty-six hymn tunes, which were all published under one cover in 1897. He was also famous as a conductor of Barnby's Choir, and later succeeded Gounod as conductor of the Albert Hall Choral Society. He died in London on the 28th of January, 1896.
237 Sweet and LowThis is a setting of Tennyson's lines: "Sweet and low, sweet and low, wind of the western sea, Low, low, breathe and blow, wind of the western sea. Over the rolling waters go, Come from the dying moon and blow, Blow him again to me, While my little one, while my pretty one, sleeps."
BARTLETT, James Carroll 1850-This composer of many meritorios songs was born in Harmony, Maine, July 14,1850. He entered the New England Conservatory in 1869, where he studied piano and voice. He became later a pupil of Shakespeare and developed into a fine tenor. He toured this country in 1875-1876 with Camilla Urso, and was later musical director for Booth and Barrett. Many of his songs occupy a regular place on concert programmes.
273 A DreamA song with a melodious beauty which has caught the popular fancy, and bids fair to retain its popularity for some time to come
BATISTE, Edouard 1820-1876Batiste was a very renowned French organist, perhaps the best of his time. Like most eminent French musicians. he got his education at the Conservatoire of Paris. His compositions stand high in popular favor, but they fall far below what might be expected from an executant of his unusual ability. He wrote very little, if anything, except for the organ.
131 Communion in GA melody such as one would suspect had been written for the organ. It is anything but elaborate in the beginning, depending solely on the delightful tune with plain harmonies for its attractiveness. Then the same subject is treated with various sorts of ornamentation, forming a very interesting contrast to the first part. It concludes with a quiet repetition of the theme with a slightly different harmonization.
232 Offertoire St. Cecilia Op. 8 No.2 in DThis is one of a number of "Offertoires" by Batiste which have become immensely popular among organists, especially for concert purposes. It is a simple melody of great beauty, which is subjected to much elaboration, not to the detriment of the melody however, for Batiste knew when to stop. The present roll plays this number in a way seldom equaled by hand playing because of certain technical difficulties which are of course of no consequence to the automatic mechanism.
BEETHOVEN, Ludwig van 1770-1827What can be said in a paragraph of this Titan about whom literally dozens of whole volumes have been written? One might venture the opinion that he was the greatest of all composers with very little chance of overstating the truth. He invented the sonata form as we know it, and then wrote symphonies in that form as if to prove it the greatest and best of all forms. All the hardships necessary to the development of a great genius were Beethoven's; he knew the sting of hunger more than once, and poverty was his portion for many years. A drunken father and the death of his mother and sister added to his misery. It may be that the troubles that were his in early life furnish the reason for the fact that, as compared with Mozart, Mendelssohn and others, he wrote practically nothing of importance until he was twenty-five or twenty-six.
126 Adagio Cantabile-Sonata PathetiqueThis is a lovely example of wonderful thematic beauty combined with masterful workmanship. Like most of Beethoven's themes, it is simplicity itself; indeed, this is its charm. It is from one of Beethoven's early sonatas, but a famous one, "Pathetique." As an effective organ number it is unexcelled.
219 Symphony Op. 21-Andante CantabileThis is the slow movement of Beethoven's first symphony, written sometime before April, 1800. Nothing need be said about the charm of a Beethoven slow movement, whether it be from a sonata, string quartette or symphony. In this style of writing he gave his genius a free rein, and his wonderful technique of composition permitted him to put down what many another man might have thought, but never could have expressed as Beethoven did. This first symphonic slow movement gives many indications as to what might be expected of him in the future, and his style and individuality never changed to a point which would make this movement unrecognizable as Beethoven's work.
265 Minuet in GThis is a lovely unattached minuet which deserves to belong to a symphony, quartette, or sonata. It suffers little in popularity, however, as a result of its not having a "home"; in fact, it is quite possible it is better known than would be the case if it were a part of one of the above forms. Beethoven wrote it! What more can be said by way of recommendation.
322 Andante con Moto (Fifth Symphony)The Fifth Symphony was begun about 1805 and had its first production December 22, 1808, at a concert given by Beethoven consisting entirely of works of his own which had never before been heard in public. The affair was a fiasco, due to the length of the programme, the extreme difficulty of the music, the intense cold in the unheated theatre, and an actual breakdown in a choral fantasie which was one of the numbers. In spite of such an inauspicious premier performance, the Fifth Symphony has become perhaps the most popular of all symphonies. There is nothing more beautiful in music than a Beethoven slow movement, and few, if any of his, surpass this one. The organ roll does it full justice.
BIZET, Georges 1838-1875Bizet, whose proper name was Alexandre Cesar Leopold Bizet, was one of the really great modern French composers. From 1848 to 1857 he was one of the most distingmshed pupils at the Conservatoire, where he studied piano, organ, harmony and composition, the latter branch under no less a personage Halevy, whose daughter he married in 1869. He had his share of disappointments before getting the recognition he deserved. Carmen, his masterpiece, conquered the whole world. It was produced first at the Opera Comique, March 3, 1875. It did not meet with instant success, but its genuine merit was not to be denied as it won a lasting place among the standard grand operas.
345 Carmen Fantasie No.1This long roll is a source of delight from beginning to end. It properly begins with the introduction to the opera, after which the stately Toreador Song appears. The principal airs of the first act follow in about the order in which they appear in the opera. The wonderful Habanera; the street boys' chorus; the lovely air by Michaela; and in fact all the gems of the first act are included. In this arrangement this beautiful music is heard at its best, and it would be difficult to find one to dispute the statement made in the first sentence of this paragraph.
BOCCHERINI, Luigi 1743-1805Boccherini was the son of a bass player, who gave him his fird musical instruction on the cello. At fourteen he was sent to Rome to study, and his progress both in playing and composition very soon made him famous.
In 1764 he returned to Lucca, the place of his birth, where he became a member of the theatre orchestra and town band.
He was one of the most indefatigable composers, and despite his great popularity, he died in abject poverty May 28, 1805.
The list of his compositions seems incredible. including as it does 125 quintettes, 91 quartettes, 54 trios, all for strings, besides 42 trios for other instruments, 12 pianoforte quintettes, 18 quintettes for various other instruments, 20 symphonies, 2 octettes, violin duos, sonatas, cello concertos, and sacred music.
He was contemporaneous with Haydn, with whom he shares the honor of being the father of the string quartette.
340 Minuet CelebreThis minuet is one of the charming bits of writing so characteristic of the composer. Its daintiness is its chief charm, though it lacks nothing in the way of strictly musical worth. It is perhaps the best-known bit of writing by this composer.
BRAGA, GaetanoThis composer is a distinguished Italian cellist. He was born in the Abruzzi and was a pupil of the Naples Conservatory. He traveled extensively and has made several European concert tours. Besides compositions for the violoncello, he has written some operas and chamber music.
266 Angels' SerenadeThe popularity of this number has, in many years, shown no signs of lessening. The theme is of an appealing sort, and the words contain a pretty sentiment. Altogether it is a charming number and one deserving of the popular approval it has so long enjoyed.
BRAHMS, Johannes 1833-1897This composer was born in Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died in Vienna, April 3, 1897. His first instruction in music was given by his father, who was a member of the Orchestra of the Stadt Theatre, Hamburg, but his principal musical training was under Marxsen of Altona. He made his debut as pianist when but fourteen years old and shortly thereafter made a concert tour with Remenyi. the violinist, but it is as a composer that Brahms is best known. Some of his friends in their zeal pitted him against Wagner. and precipitated an artistic battle between the two, which was distasteful to both. He occupies a place in the musical world as a master.
261 CapricciosoThis is a delightful little thing written for the piano, and will serve to show the wonderful effectiveness of the organ in rendering a number which is so obviously piano music. Its musical value is really enhanced as a number of pretty figures which may be lost on the piano, because of the single tone color, are brought to the surface-so to speak-on the organ in a way quite impossible to any other instrument.
310 Hungarian Dance No. 1
311 Hungarian Dance No. 2
312 Hungarian Dance No. 4
300 Hungarian Dance No. 6Many composers have felt the wild and weird charm of Magyar (Hungarian) music to the extent that they were moved to write something in this style. Some of them, undoubtedly, were unconsciously obeying certain racial instincts, while others were simply moved by a care-free style in which they could give expression in unrestrained and almost formless fashion to certain moods which could not be adequately expressed in strictly orthodox forms. The peculiarities discoverable in what we know as Hungarian music are traceable to certain characteristics in the music of two distinct peoples. To the Magyars-the true Hungarians-belongs the rhythm, which is unique because of its almost incessant syncopation, consisting generally of the accentuation of the second eighth note of the measure of 2-4 time. This rhythm is known as "alIa zoppa" (in a limping way). The gypsies are responsible for the numerous embellishments, without which Hungarian music would not, to us, be Hungarian. These two qualities have been so intimately linked together for so long a time that they have become concomitants and are now inseparable. Thus it is seen that the gypsies, while enjoying the honor of being the composers of this charming music, simply took the real Hungarian music, added certain ornaments of their own, and produced what has come to be regarded as a national style. In other words, they did what Homer did according to Kipling:
When 'Omer smote 'is bloomin' lyre,
'e'd 'eard men sing on land and sea,
And what 'e thought 'e might require,
'e went and took-same as me.
The market-girls an' fishermen,
The shepherd an' the sailors, too,
They 'eard old songs turn up again,
But kep' it quite-same as you!
They knew 'e stole; 'e knew they knowed,
They didn't tell, nor make a fuss,
But winked at 'Omer down the road,
An' 'e winked back-the same as us!
The Brahms Hungarian dances are standard, and a description of anyone of them would serve as adequate comment on all. They possess all the characteristics, peculiar and otherwise, of the style, and may be taken as models of their kind. Number 6 is perhaps the most popular of the set, but the others are no less interesting. Their beauties are brought out by the rolls in an unusually satisfactory manner.
BREWER, John Hyatt 1858-John Hyatt Brewer is a well-known American organist who began his musical career as a boy soprano, and served several New York churches in this capacity. He studied harmony with Navarro and organ with Buck and others. He is known as a fine organist. and a capable chorus director as well as a composer of many works for organ. He has also written numerous songs, glees, and choral works.
303 Echo BellsThis composition has been arranged especially for a pleasing introduction of the chimes. It is, however, very effective on organs in which the chimes are not included, where the effect of chimes is produced by other combinations.
BUCK, Dudley 1889-1909Dudley Buck was the son of a Hartford (Connecticut) merchant, who planned that Dudley should follow a mercantile life. He discovered his son's musical ability, however, and showed commendable judgment in sparing no effort to make of him a musician. Buck was one of the greatest American composers, and has left us a rich heritage of compositions in various forms. While he wrote voluminously for male and mixed choruses, he did not neglect the orchestra, and was at one time assistant conductor of the Theodore Thomas Orchestra. He was for many years America's premier organist, and wrote much for the organ.
149 At Evening, Idylle, Op. 52It is doubtful if any of the organ works of this composer has met with the degree of approbation from musicians and the general public which this number enjoys. It is beautifully sentimental, and when one is in the mood to enjoy a pastoral such as this, nothing could surpass it in its quiet effectiveness. This American composer has endeared himself to the public largely through his anthems, of which he has written a very large number.
313 Home, Sweet Home (Transcription)The authorship of this lovely melody, which we know by the above name, is much in doubt. It has been ascribed to Sir Henry Bishop, and to Thomas Moore. It was published early in the last century under the title, "To the Home of My Childhood," and the melody ascribed to Sicilian origin.
Sir Henry Bishop used this supposed Sicilian melody in his opera "CIari," or the "Maid of Milan," in 1828. Later he confessed to William Chappell and others that he was the real composer of the melody. What a condescension! Incidentally, who would not like to make such a "confession"!
It may be said to the credit of Buck, that in his transcription for the organ he has done nothing to destroy the innate beauty of the melody, but rather has woven about it a very pretty figure of embroidery which serves only to add to the loveliness of the theme by contrast.
363 Wait Till the Cows Come HomeThis is a number from Jack O'Lantern in which the comedian, Fred Stone, is the star. As arranged it is intended as a fox trot, and as such has become very popular. We believe this roll will be found to meet all the requirements of dance music, as it lacks none of the snap of an orchestral rendition.
CHAMINADE, Cecile 1861-A brilliant pianiste and a composer of very many piano pieces highly esteemed for the dainty style so characteristic of the French school. At eight years of age her first efforts at composition resulted in some church music. Since then her writing has been mostly for the piano, and her pieces have been popularized by her own playing of them as well as by their inherent merit. She has also written many songs, and a number of more pretentious works, but is chiefly known as a composer for the piano.
190 Water SpritesThis is one of a great many beautiful piano pieces by this prolific composer. It is charmingly characteristic of her, and is a good example of the dainty style in which the French excel. Most delightful effects are easily obtainable on the organ with this roll, and a surprise is in store for anyone possessed of the idea that piano pieces cannot be adapted to the organ. Compositions for the piano have been successfully adapted to the orchestra, and what is an organ but an orchestra?
301 Scarf Dance, Callirhoe SuiteThe Scarf Dance is the second of four numbers comprising the Callirhoe Suite for orchestra, a ballet mst produced in 1888. Like most of Chaminade's work, its charm lies chiefly in its daintiness. After the opening part, which is so well known, there is a delightful theme of Oriental character which is in appropriate contrast to the beginning and adds tremendously to the interest. The opening part is then used as a conclusion. To those familiar with this number as played by the orchestra, this roll will be found highly satisfactory, while to those who know it only as a piano piece it will be a revelation.
CHOPIN, Francois Frederic 1809-1849This composer is known to the world by his piano compositions. He wrote practically nothing else except a few songs. His piano compositions, however, are enough to immortalize him. So important are they that it would be almost impossible to find a piano recital programme without one or more Chopin numbers. Perhaps his waltzes and nocturnes are best known to the laity, but the mazurkas, polonaises and ballads are known and played by all great artists.
116 Funeral MarchThis impressive funeral march is from a piano sonata, Op. 35, and is much the best-known movement of the sonata. The opening series of chords are as melancholy as one could wish them to be, and then the sombreness is well relieved by the lovely plaintive melody which forms the trio. The tinge of sadness is as apparent, however, in the trio as in the opening and closing movements, which are practically alike.
DEBUSSY, Claude Achille 1862-Debussy may be considered the founder of what we call the modern French school. He is probably the best-known exponent of the full tone scale, that is to say, in many of his melodies he makes use of steps of a full tone, instead of adhering to the diatonic scale of the key indicated by the signature, which is composed of tones and semi tones. His work has created much discussion which has brought no result except to bring forth very rabid expressions for or againat it.
249 "Clair de Lune" (Moonlight)One of the lovely piano pieces by this composer, the exquisite charm of which is largely due to its simplicity. It is as soothing as moonlight, and dreamy enough to suit the most exacting sentimentalist.
DELIBES, Clement Philibert Leo 1836-1891This French composer is best known by his fascinating ballet music, of which he has written much. He received his musical education at the Paris Conservatoire, and eventually became Professor of Advanced Composition in that institution. A large number of operas were written by him, and some of them occupy a regular place in the repertoires of many opera houses. France has produced no greater writer of dance music.
139 Intermezzo-Pas des Fleurs (Naila)This is a charming bit of writing of a distinctly French flavor, and of a style in which Delibes had no superior.
155 "Pizzicati" and "Valse Lente" from "Sylvia"The two numbers on this roll are from a grand mythological ballet which was produced June 14, 1876, and any doubt which may have existed as to Delibes' ability as a dance music writer were at once dispelled.
The first movement is, as its name would indicate, played by plucking the strings of all the stringed instruments in the orchestra. This effect is wonderfully duplicated on the organ and the result is a charmingly satisfactory rendition.
The Valse Lente is one of a type that could have been written by no one but a Frenchman, and indeed few Frenchmen could have done it. Nothing in the way of the grace so characteristic of this composer is lacking, and as a lovely bit of ballet music it is unexcelled.
DONIZETTI, Gaetano 1797-1848This prolific composer was contemporaneous with Rossini. and while he wrote much of merit and in the true Italian style of his day, he achieved little in the way of public recognition until after Rossini, who was five years his senior, had ceased to compose. His greatest successes are "Lucia di Lammermoor" which contains the famous sextette; "Lucrezia Borgia" and "La Favorita" out of a complete list of sixty-six or sixty-seven.
185 Sextette from Lucia di LammermoorIt is doubtful if any single piece of music exceeds this number in popularity. Although originally written for six voices, so well does it lend itself to various forms of instrumental adaptation that it has been arranged in every conceivable form. It is a particular favorite with concert bands, when the six parts are taken by various solo instruments accompanied by the full band. It is extremely effective on the organ, and invariably gives pleasure.
DRDLA, FranzOne of the most popular composers for the violin is this Bohemian who was born in Prague. He has spent about twenty-five years in Vienna, much of this time being spent as concert master of the Royal Opera House. He is a very fine violinist, as both his compositions and position would indicate, and a very prolific composer of small numbers, the most popular of which are well known in America. Being only a little past middle age, much more may be expected of him in the way of delightful writing, quite equal to the standard he has set by that portion of his work which is known in America.
349 SouvenirThis is one of the numerous compositions for violin and piano by this Bohemian violinist. Incidentally it is characteristic of the school to which Drdla belongs. The extreme rubato savors of the Bohemian school, as it does of the Hungarian school. Altogether it is a charming bit of writing and the string stops of the organ give it from this roll in a way that is no less pleasing than a violin rendition.
DUBOIS, Francois Clement Theodore 1837-Dubois at an early age left the place of his birth -Rosney-and went to Paris to enter the Conservatoire, where he successively took the prizes for harmony, fugue and organ, later, in 1861, taking the much-coveted Prix de Rome. His compositions cover all forms from song to symphony and grand opera. but he is best known in this country for his organ compositions.
229 Cantilene NuptialeThis is a very good sample of the delicious melody of which Dubois is capable. Like most compositions by this composer, it was written for the organ, and is extremely effective as played by the present roll.
291 March of the Magi KingsThis is an exceptionally unique bit of programme music. The high sustained note which is heard throughout the march is intended to represent the ever present guiding star. It is an extremely interesting composition aside from its programme claims.
279 March Heroique de Jeanne d'ArcLittle, if anything, has been done by this celebrated French composer that is more interesting than this March Heroique. Certain programme effects have been attempted as in the case of the "March of the Magi Kings"; the voice of Jeanne being heard at intervals in this case. It is a delightful bit of writing and meets all the requirements of discriminating musicians as well as the lover of music.
234 Toccata in G MajorThe earliest examples of the Toccata form are those of Giovanni Gabrieli, 1557-1613. These examples are rather restricted in form, and seldom make use of chords even for accompanimental purposes. The original idea was developed and elaborated upon from time to time until Bach placed the form upon the solid basis which it now occupies. Most composers of organ music have included one or more Toccatas in their list, and the present one is deserving of the popularity it enjoys. Being an organ composition, it is of course effective when played from the roll.
282 In ParadisumThis is strictly an organ composition, wherein the beauty of the theme is more prominent than its brilliancy. At the beginning the accompaniment is of a celestial harp. The theme develops into a choral-like chant, to indicate the chant of the angels. The harp used in this composition gives a most beautiful effect.
DVORAK, Antonin 1841-1904This composer has endeared himself to the American public by his "New World" symphony. After hearing the negroes of the South sing some of their characteristic songs, he thought he had discovered the basis for an American school of composition, and proceeded to put his ideas into effect. The result is this wonderful symphony, which is perhaps more popular than any written in recent years. He wrote it during his stay in America as the director of the National Conservatory of New York, and Americans are proud that such a masterpiece should have been written in this country.
Dvorak's theories with regard to the value of negro music in serious work have been the occasion of much controversy. A hearing of the symphony, however, is apt to settle any dispute, and bring about an agreement that it is highly enjoyable and likely to live.
175 Humoreske, Op. 101, No.7Dvorak has been known to students and attendants at orchestra concerts for many years. His New World Symphony endeared him to American musicians, despite the controversy it created. The Humoreske, however, is the dainty little conceit that brought him the recognition of the masses. It is one of the big little things no one but a great man could write.
145 Adagio, Allegro Molto. First Movement from New World SymphonyThe fact that this symphony was written in this country is the occasion of a considerable amount of pride to Americans. It is a great work, and whether the claim of the composer to have discovered in the negro folk song a basis for an American school of composition is exemplified, matters not. It can be enjoyed from a musical standpoint regardless of any opinions one may have as to its origin. It is enough that the negro melodies should have inspired so wonderful a work.
146 Largo. Second Movement, New World SymphonyThis is thought by many people to be the best movement of the four comprising the symphony. The wonderfully sad and plaintive first theme is doubtless the occasion of this opinion. As a matter of fact, the other movements are quite as good, but they are not so obvious-they require a few more hearings to be understood. Nothing could excel the first theme of this number, however, which in the orchestra is an English horn solo for four measures, then it continues as a duet with the clarinet. Presently the strings have it for eight measures, when the English horn takes it up again with the bassoon. The French horns lead up to the second theme which is in strong contrast, paving the way for a reentrance of the first theme with which the movement finishes.
147 Scherzo. Third Movement, New World SymphonyScherzo is an Italian word, meaning "jest," therefore a scherzo is a composition of a sportive and playful character. One playing of this roll will suffice to show how well Dvorak has caught the jesting spirit. Here and there he stops his chatter to sing a plaintive little tune for which the ear is wholly unprepared, but which is no less welcome or beautiful on that account, returning to the funny part of his musical story only to interpolate another contrasting tune. Then the story closes after a fine working down from the climax to a scarcely audible pianissimo, with a crashing chord by the full orchestra.
148 Allegro confuoco. Fourth Movement, New World SymphonyNo less interesting than the others is this last movement of the New World Symphony. At the tenth measure begins the principal theme of the movement, a theme big and broad, and well adapted to the thematic treatment it is to receive later on. Presently the second theme is heard in the strings with wood wind accompaniment, after which portions of both are developed in a most fascinating manner. An interesting feature is the curious introduction into this movement of parts of both the Second and Third Movements. They are heard distinctly at about the middle of the roll and near the end. Truly this is a fitting finale to a great work, an example of wonderful workmanship, and destined to become a classic.
ELGAR, Sir Edward 1857-This remarkable composer, the son of a fine organist, was born at Broadheath, June 2, 1857. His musical proclivities asserted themselves early in life, and before he was fifteen he had often substituted for his father at the organ. A plan to send him to Leipsic failed, and Elgar's musical education was thrust upon him by a series of circumstances which, in all probability, broadened his musical vision to an extent that would have been impossible had he followed a strictly ordered course of study. There is scarcely an instrument in the orchestra that he did not learn to play, the wonderful color effects of his orchestral writings being undoubtedly due to his unusual practical knowledge of each of these instruments. A list of his compositions includes nearly all the accepted forms, done in a very charming but generally very informal way.
287 "Pomp and Circumstance"-Op. 39, No.1 (Military March)Of all the marches under this title, of which there are six, none matches its name better than this one, in D. Its pompous beginning and ending are wonderfully contrasted with the imposing middle theme, which is of the kind that makes one's feet keep time whether he will or not.
365 Salut d'AmourThere has probably been nothing written in recent years of really good quality which has caught the popular fancy to the extent that this little love song enjoys. It is played as a violin solo, cello solo, and is an indispensable part of every organist's repertoire. It can be heard to no greater advantage than on the organ, and this roll does it in a way superior to the best hand-played rendition.
FAURE, Jean-Baptiste 1830Jean-Baptiste Faure was born in Moulins, January 15, 1830. His father was a singer, and the son followed his footsteps. He has written several songs, of which The Palms is best known, and some books of instruction in the art of singing. He created many of the baritone parts in the operas written during the time of his public activity, which ceased about 1878-1880.
33l The PalmsThis is much the best known of the several songs by this composer. It has become a part of the Palm Sunday service in most churches and furnishes an opportunity for the di~play of a fine baritone voice such as is found in few songs
FLAGLER, Isaac Van Vleck 1844-1909Was born in Albany, N. Y., May 15, 1844. He studied music first in his native city and then in Paris with Edouard Batiste. He occupied important positions as organist after his return to this country, in Chicago, Poughkeepsie, Albany and Auburn. He also taught music in the Syracuse and Cornell universities and at the Utica Conservatory. He composed and collected considerable organ music, which is held in high esteem. He died in Auburn in 1909.
290 SerenataThis is just such a melody as the name would indicate, and one characteristic of this wellknown American organist.
289 ImpromptuA dainty thing, replete with lovely harmonies and charming melody. It is lacking of any particular form, but no less interesting on that account.
275 GavotteA pleasing example of an old dance form. It is tuneflll and is not lacking in the swing so characteristic of this form.
FLOTOW, Friedrich Freiherr von 1812-1883His father intended him to enter the diplomatic service, but like many another father, he was disappointed. The boy had something in him that precluded any other pursuit than music. Music was at its best in Paris in 1827, the time of Flotow's first visit to that city, and the artistic life which surrounded him brought him to a realization of his own musical talent. He began to study with Reicha. He remained in Paris until the revolution of 1830 drove him away. He could not stay away long, as he found the gay life of Paris a necessary stimulus to his work. He wrote about twenty operas, of which practically only two, "Martha," and "Stradella," are known to the present generation.
198 Overture to "Martha"This tuneful overture to Flotow's most popular opera has since its first performance in 1847 been a favorite with the public. While it possesses merit to those inclined to look below the surface, it is its melodious quality which endears it to the public. Martha and Stradella, out of nearly twenty, are about the only Flotow operas ever produced now. These two, however, are destined to enjoy many more years of popular favor.
314 Overture to StradellaThis opera was first performed at the Palais Royal Theatre in Paris as a lyric drama. Flotow then recomposed it as a grand opera and produced it at Hamburg, December 30, 1844, as "Alessandro Stradella." The overture is particularly tuneful, and is perhaps as well known as the Overture to Martha by the same composer. The first part is one of the most dignified of Flotow's efforts, and is better known than the rest of the overture, being much used as an organ voluntary.
Taken in its complete form as we have it on the roll, it is one of the best of the lighter overtures.
FRANCK, Cesar 1822-1890Cesar Franck was a Belgian by birth but a Frenchman by choice and adoption. After his studies at the Paris Conservatoire he returned to his native country for the short period of two years, then moved his family to Paris where he established himself permanently in 1844. His unusually strong constitution permitted him to work at a pace that few men could have equaled. Day after day he gave ten lessons of one hour each, beside laying the foundation for the enormous amount of composing he was to do later in life. He was a most kindly and lovable man, and lived his life for his music and his friends, always too busy to give any attention to the unkind criticism of his musical enemies, of whom he had many. He was the chief exponent of a new school of composition, and he cared little what was said about any of his work that passed his own exacting scrutiny and had the approval of his small but very select coterie. The very large number of compositions he left include all the established forms; Symphonies. Oratorios, Symphonic Poems; Cantatas, Biblical scenes, Operas and Chamber music, numerous pieces for the organ, piano and songs. Much of this charming music is unknown to the public. but it bids fair to come into its own. The gorgeous Symphony in D minor now occupies the place on orchestra programmes which it deserves, and organists are discovering that they have overlooked much that is worthy of their attention. Surely a very high place among the composers belongs to this man, and before many years his name will occupy the exalted position it deserves.
356 AndantinoHere is an example of unadorned beauty. The simplest of themes is used and the whole structure stands solely on its innate loveliness. Of course it could not be expected that a master contrapuntalist such as Franck was, should eliminate all evidences of his marvelous technique of composition, but he has resorted to so little in the way of development or ornamentation that the result is all the more surprising. It is an altogether lovely bit of writing, such as only a man of Franck's character could have done.
364 When You Come BackThis is one of the most popular of the many war songs which are in vogue just now. The present arrangement is a one step, and is very popular as a dance number. The composer is leader of a well-known New York dance orchestra and has written a number of things which have caught on with the public.
GERMAN, J. Edward 1862-German is considered by many to be the successor of Sir Arthur Sullivan. His remarkable gift of melody and his ability to clothe his catchy themes with appropriate harmony have won for him a lasting place in the musical world. He has written a number of suites of incidental music to Shakespearean plays which have excited a wide interest. Two symphonies occupy an important place among his longer works.
158 Country Dance-Nell GwynOne of three dances from the music to "Nell Gwyn," which was first produced in London in 1900. German is one of the best-known English composers and has given us here a dance of remarkable grace and freshness, and strikingly characteristic of his ability.
335 Shepherd's Dance
334 Morris Dance
326 Torch DanceThe music which German had composed for Richard Mansfield's production of Richard III was of such a superior quality that when in 1892 Sir Henry Irving presented Henry VIII, German was commissioned to write the incidental music. The result is quite equal to the first effort, and we present here three dances which have become famous as concert numbers, and justly so. They are all charming numbers, and the organ is the ideal instrument for their performance.
GIBSON, Archer 1875-Was born in Baltimore and received his early instruction at home. He later studied piano and organ under Harold Randolph at the Peabody Conservatory in that city. After holding important positions in Baltimore. he went to New York in 1901, becoming organist at the Brick Presbyterian Church on Fifth Avenue. He devotes his entire time at present to concert work and is probably the most brilliant of American organists.
268 ElegyThe sadness of this melody is one of its greatest charms. It is heard at the beginning and after a lovely middle part, which is in great contrast, the first theme is again heard, clothed with the same harmonies, but on a different solo stop. The change thus effected comes to a fitting close, completing a very charming number
GODARD, Benjamin 1849-1895This French composer has enriched our musical heritage by many works of extreme beauty and refinement. His chief work is the "Damnation de Faust," which betrays his mastery of orchestration. Most of us know him best by his songs, and pieces in shorter form for piano, violin, etc., in which his wonderful gift of melody is a striking characteristic. A number of operas and symphonies, as well as other larger works. are better known in Europe than in America.
170 Berceuse from JocelynComparatively few of the thousands of American admirers of this lovely lullaby are aware that it is an excerpt from an opera. Such is the case, however, and it is a fine example of the composer's ability along lyric lines. It has the sentimental quality which sings itself into one's soul, and has become the great favorite it is by force of sheer merit.
308 SolitudeThe title of this number is apposite enough in so far as the first and last parts are concerned, but the middle part is apt to suggest anything else than Solitude. For instance, it might suggest the ponderous footsteps of an elephant in the jungle, and the chattering of a lot of monkeys. Or it might serve well to depict a cave full of gnomes and bats,-a dark stage, villains, etc. After all, what's in a name? This is a charming bit of music and will doubtless suggest a different thought to each of its hearers.
GOLDMARK, KarlGoldmark early gave promise by his violin playing. He was sent to Vienna in 1844 to study in earnest. The work which brought him seriously before the public as a composer was the overture, "Sakuntala." His "Queen of Sheba" is the greatest of his operas. Goldmark's complete mastery over every musical effect, together with his wealth of melody, makes his works altogether charming.
226 Overture, "Sakuntala"At the first production of this overture in Vienna, the public realized that a new star had arisen. The overture is founded on a Sanskrit drama, and the story has to do with the gift of a ring by the King to Sakuntala by which she is to be recognized as his wife. She loses the ring while washing clothes in the sacred river, and when presented to the King he repudiates her because of the absence of the ring. Some fishermen find the ring and return it to the King who then remembers Sakuntala, and is filled with grief and remorse. He finally finds Sakuntala again, and the joy of both is complete.
GOTTSCHALK, Louis Moreau 1829-1869This perhaps most famous American pianist was born in New Orleans of an English father and a French mother. He studied the piano merely as an accomplishment until the age of twelve, when he prevailed upon his parents, who were in easy circumstances, to allow him to go to Paris to take up music seriously. When financial reverses overtook his father, he turned his talent to good account, and traveled eztensively giving concerts. He was the idol of many countries, including his own. No other pianist has traveled as eztensively or played to as many people. He died suddenly in Rio de Janeiro.
172 Last HopeThis composition is said to have been played by Gottschalk extemporaneously at the request of his benefactress, Mme. S---, who, mourning the absence of her only son, and being afflicted with an incurable disease, could only forget her suffering in listening to the playing of her dear Moreau. "In pity, my dear Moreau, one little melody, the last hope."
It is upon this lovely composition that Gottschalk's fame as a composer rests. The theme has been adapted to church uses by its arrangement into a hymn.
GOUNOD, Charles Francois 1818-1893Gounod may be said to have inherited his talent, as his mother was a distinguished pianiste. In 1836 he entered the Conservatoire, and in 1837 wrote a cantata which brought him the aecond prize. He became an organist and his experience with choirs is doubtless responsible for his fine choral writing. His naturally refined disposition ahows in all his works, and he rarely wrote anything below a certain dignified atandard which he seems to have aet for himself. "Faust" is his best-known work, and one of the very best operaa ever written. It ia tuneful and dramatic. and in fact is of a style which might be advantageously emulated by some of his auccessors.
127 Ave MariaThe first prelude of the Forty-eight Preludes and Fugues of Bach is used as an accompaniment to a wonderful melody to which Gounod has set the Ave Maria. So wonderful is this combination that mention of an Ave Maria is generally taken to refer to this one. Indeed, great as is the prelude, it is known to comparatively few people in any other form than as the accompaniment to Gounod's great melody. It is known to most hearers as a soprano solo with violin obligato and piano accompaniment. This roll will be found to bring out the beauties of the imitation of the voice part by the violin in most satisfactory manner.
156 Serenade-Sing, Smile, SlumberA tenor solo, originally, this charming song has been arranged for all sorts of combinations of instruments. It is a musical setting to a poem by Victor Hugo, which follows:
When thou singest while nestling at eve close by my side,
Dost thou know what my soul unto thine would fain confide?
Thy sweet voice wakes the mem'ry of days render'd joyful by thee.
Ah! then sing, ah, sing, my fair one, then sing, still sing to me.
214 "Sanctus" from St. Cecilia MassThis lovely number is from one of the many religious works which came from Gounod's pen in the latter years of his life. After having for many years written almost nothing but opera, in which he was very successful, his whole trend of thought seems to have been changed, and the dramatic instinct, which he had worked long to develop, became subordinate to the religious fervor which characterizes almost all his compositions for the twelve years preceding his death.
This Sanctus is a tenor solo with chorus, and is delightfully effective on the organ.
230 NazarethNazareth is one of the songs which could have been written by no one of a less refined nature than Gounod-not to say, of a less religious nature. One familiar with his work could almost identify any of his sacred songs by the unmistakable religious fervor which permeates their whole structure.
293 Marche RomaineThis is a fine example of march rhythm of the kind which makes one's foot keep time. It is both pompous and dignified and never anything but musical.
305 Funeral March of a MarionetteAt the commencement of this composition, it is supposed that two of the doll actors have had a fight, in which one of them has been killed. The others sorrowfully mourn the fate of their companion and organize a party of pall-bearers, who shall carry their friend to the cemetery. The procession sets forth and on the road the troupe converses about the vicissitudes of life and reflects sadly that it required but one hard blow on the nose to knock the breath out of so talented an artist. As the weather is exceedingly hot, some of the troupe begin to find the way long and tiresome and they stop at a wayside tavern. They remark to each other that it is not the duty of the living to die for the dead, and in order to enable them to bear up, they must partake of soothing and refreshing fluid. Meanwhile they get into a discussion as to the merits of their late companion and in the heat of discussion, they forget that the funeral procession has now reached the gates of the cemetery. They finally decide to join, avoiding all appearance of undignified haste. They fall into their places and enter the cemetery to the same phrase as the one at the beginning of the march.
355 Selections from FaustTo many people Faust is the only music by which Gounod is known, and while these people have missed much that is good, it may be said, perhaps without successful contradiction, that they are familiar with the best of Gounod's compositions. Indeed, they are familiar with some of the finest music ever written. The present roll includes the Introduction or Overture; the apparition of Marguerite at the spinning wheel; the Kennesse; Siebel's Song; "Gentle Flowers"; the "King of Thule"; the Jewel Song; Soldiers' Chorus, etc., embracing nearly all the popular and best-known numbers in the work.
Faust is one of the operas which never grows old, and this roll is a source of delight to all who hear it.
GRIEG, Edvard Hagerup 1843-1901Grieg's talent was early fostered by his mother, who was a talented amateur, and from her he got his first lessons. He began to compose at nine, and on the advice of Ole Bull was sent to Leipsic in 1858, where he remained until 1862 under Hauptmann, Richter, Reitz, Reinecke, Wenzel and Moscheles. His natural ability, which was very great, could not help but develop under the guidance of such an array of teachers. On his return to Norway, the national instinct asserted itself and the rest of his life was practically devoted to the fostering of a Norwegian school of music. He has left many works which must endure, including nearly all the accepted forms.
181 Morning Mood-Peer Gynt SuiteThe attention given this suite by concert orchestras would lead to a conclusion which is very generally accepted-that it was originally written for orchestra. Such, however, is not the case, for the incidental music to the Ibsen play first appeared in the form of a pianoforte duet. Certain numbers of it were selected by Grieg and turned into two suites for orchestra. The suites are known as Peer Gynt No.1, and Peer Gynt No.2. It is from Suite No. 1 that this roll is taken, and the organ will be found to produce this music in all its loveliness. It is intended to musically represent daybreak on an Egyptian desert. The climax of ever increasing tone may be supposed to indicate the increasing daylight.
183 Anitra's Dance-Peer Gynt SuiteOne does not need to be told that this is an Oriental dance. It breathes the Orient in every measure. With this graceful, sinuous dance, Anitra fascinates Peer Gynt, after first having made a slave of him by her charms, and they agree to fiy to the desert together.
184 Death of Ase-Peer Gynt SuiteThe remarkable harmonies in this number are inexpressibly charming and weird. It is a funeral march somewhat different from the accepted form, as it lacks the middle part or trio. No combination of instruments could possibly render this number more effectively than the organ. One might think it was written for the organ.
182 In the Hall of the Mountain King-Peer Gynt SuitePeer Gynt forsakes his stolen bride and wanders about the mountains, straying into the hans of the Mountain King where the gnomes tease and torment him until he is driven out. The opening of this number is quaint, mysterious and subdued. It increases in both tempo and power from the very first measure until at the end it becomes a surging riot of sound.
GUILMANT, Felix Alexandre 1837-1911This aon of a Boulogne organist displayed his ability so early in life that at sixteen he held an important engagement. In 1871 he moved to Paris to take the appointment as organist in Trinite, a position which he held until 1901. As a composer he is known almost solely by his organ works, of which there are many, includitng a symphony for organ and orchestra, seven sonatas and numerous concertos.
186 Offertory on Two Christmas HymnsThis composition proves Guilmant no less capable as an arranger than as a composer. These two old hymn tunes have lost none of their original charm as a result of their treatment in this manner. Guilmant's painstaking workmanship is well exemplified in this number, and being a composition for the organ, it is an especially charming roll.
233 March Funebre et Chant Seraphique-No. 17This is one of the best-known organ compositions by one of the very great organists of the world. Guilmant played it many times in this country and gained for it the popularity it justly deserves. It is peculiarly organ music and of the type which permits the organ to proclaim itself the king of instruments.
262 Elevation, in AbThis impressive composition designed to accompany the ceremony of the elevation of the Host, is one of this famous organist-composer's best-known works. He has chosen that the uplifting character of the music be displayed by a fervid theme. He has designed the work that it be rather free from complexities, both of structural as well as of harmonic nature. This beautiful melody makes its greatest appeal simply, betraying at every measure the sincere depth of religious thought in the mind of the composer when it was conceived. This number is very effective on the organ.
285 PastoraleThis form is one which is not unusual in Guilmant's compositions, and one in which he showed particular skill. The present Pastorale was written for harmonium and piano and its successful performance from a roll entails very exacting conditions. We must have the sustained harmonies of the harmonium, and the broken chords of the piano, and it is surprising to observe how satisfactorily the organ fulfills all the requirements. This roll leaves nothing to be desired.
288 Grand Chorus in D-Op. 18, No.1This roll will bring to many a vivid recollection of the composer's own playing of this great composition. Guilmant was small in stature, but he could conceive big things, and no better testimony is needed than a hearing of this roll. The first theme is given out in massive chords which are tremendously assertive, giving way later to a playful mood, which furnishes a wonderful contrast, and prepares one for a reiteration of the first part which is no less interesting as a finale than as an opening theme.
304 Finale (Grand Chorus in Eb)Guilmant's conception of a Grand Chorus is well indicated in this example of the composer at his best. It is magnificently imposing and shows the composer to be the great workman that he was. The thematic material is good enough, but it is largely what he has done with it that makes it the glorious composition it is. It was, of course, written for the organ, which means that the roll does it full justice.
296 Torchlight March-Op. 59, No.1This is an unusual type of march, which begins so pompously that it would seem impossible to get down to the sentimental theme of the trio. The contrast is not so great, however, as to be inappropriate, or unenjoyable. The first theme recurs after the trio, for a brief moment, when a new theme is announced. Then as a finale we find the first theme much elaborated, and a brilliant coda.
HANDEL, George Frederick 1685-1759Handel was born in Halle, Lower Saxony, and was contemporaneous with Bach, both having been born in the same year. Nothing short of a volume could contain the merest mention of the incidents in Handel's life, to say nothing of a description of the influence and beauty of his works. As a prolific and rapid composer he had no equal. He wrote "Rinaldo" in fourteen days, and that gigantic masterpiece, "The Messiah," in twenty-four days. He is said to have improvised on paper. He spent many years in England, and wrote many of his greatest works in that country. Indeed, there has lately arisen a controversy between England and Germany as to whether he was an English or German musician, Germany laying claim to his birth, and England to his works.
132 Hallelujah ChorusThis marvelous chorus is known to everyone. No other chorus approaches it in stupendous conception, and it is generally conceded to be the greatest of all choruses. Handel is said to have remarked that when he wrote it "he thought he saw Heaven opened and the great God himself."
188 Largo from "Xerxes"This dignified number is one of a more or less lengthy list of pieces without which no catalogue would be complete. Few are the people who have not heard it in almost every possible form except the original. It appears in the opera "Xerxes" as an aria, but is played as a solo by every sort of instrument from a trombone to a violin. In no form, however, does it display its grandeur to as good advantage as on the organ. The dignity and delicacy of the organ are particularly adapted to the happy rendition of this the only number of the opera now heard.
252 In the TwilightThis is a lovely little organ piece, and is one of many equally pretty numbers by the same composer.
HAYDN, Franz Joseph 1732-1809The career of Franz Joseph Haydn was not unique in that he began life as a "poor devil"-to use his own phrase-and ended it in affluence. We have grown almost to assume that a very great man could begin life in no other way. Indeed this is the measure of true greatness.
Haydn's birth was exceptionally timely; Bach and Handel were waning, and but for Haydn there would have been no one to continue their wonderful work until the advent of Mozart. He bridged the gap between Bach and Handel, who were contemporaries, and Mozart. It is doubtful, too, that we should have had the Mozart we know, but for Haydn.
John Mathias Frankh, a schoolmaster and relative of the Haydn family, on recognizing young Haydn's talent, prevailed upon his parents to allow him to take the boy with him to Hainburg that he might educate him and teach him music. His mother gave her consent reluctantly, as she had hoped her boy might study for the priesthood. At eight years of age he had learned all the music his benefactor was able to teach him, and went to Vienna to sing in St. Stephen's Cathedral, where he was taught Latin, reading, writing, arithmetic and music, and given his board, lodging and clothes for his services. After some years his voice began to break, and the choirmaster, wanting an excuse to dismiss him, seized with avidity upon the opportunity furnished by Joseph himself when he cut off the pigtail of a fellow chorister with a pair of scissors. He was soundly flogged and dismissed.
In 1753 Haydn became accompanist for Porpora, a famous singing teacher, and from this time until his death opportunity smiled upon him. He was engaged by Count Morzin to conduct his private orchestra. Here he wrote the first of his one hundred and twentyfive symphonies, and various other concerted works. Prince Esterhazy engaged him when it became necessary for Count Morzin to disband his orchestra, and he remained in Esterhtizy's employ for thirty years, during which time he composed most of his quartettes and symphonies.
We are indebted to Haydn for many of the musical forms in general use to-day. The sontata, the symphony, and the quartette as we know them to-day, are essentially as he left them. They have all been elaborated, but in none of them has the form undergone any change of a radical nature.
227 With Verdure Clad-"Creation"The work in which this aria occurs was begun in 1796 when Haydn was sixty-four, and finished in 1798. The work in its entirety is one of the most stupendous compositions for voices and orchestra extant.
The present aria is of florid style and will always be a favorite with lovers of oratorio. It is for soprano voice and well displays Haydn's ability to write in the florid style peculiar to this voice.
316 "The Heavens are Telling" ("Creation")The first performance of the "Creation," from which this wonderful chorus is taken, was given in private at the Schwarzenberg Palace on April 29, 1798, and in public on March 19, 1799, at the National Theatre, Vienna. If ever a work was inspired it was surely this stupendous oratorio. Haydn said : "Never was I so pious as when composing the Creation."
HENSELT, Adolf vonAdolf von Henselt was born in Bavaria in 1814. He was a celebrated pianist and was well known as a composer of some very interesting studies for the piano. He was Official Court Pianist to the Empress of Russia and was Instructor in Music to the Princes. He died in 1889.
307 If I Were a BirdThis melodious study was named by the author, "If I were a bird, to thee I would fly," and throughout the entire composition there is indicated the spirit of unrest. The composition indicates clearly the sentiment of longing and at one point rises to an impressive climax. After a pause, composure is regained and a flitting melody is again heard, but this time the impatience is subdued. Nothing is lacking to make this a pleasing number.
HERBERT, Victor 1859-We, in America, have come to feel that Victor Herbert belongs to us, so great have been his musical activities among us. He was born in Dublin, Ireland. His father dying when he was seven years old, his mother, a daughter of Samuel Lover, the novelist, went to Stuttgart to live. Here Herbert entered the Conservatory and chose the violoncello as his instrument. He came to New York in 1886 and became associated with Anton Seidl as solo cellist and assistant conductor. He has written much in the way of light operas, and short pieces for various instruments, as well as a number of more serious works.
267 BadinageThis is a playful conceit of a kind that no one writes better than Herbert. The tempo rubato is characteristic, and it fairly sparkles with dainty melody and somewhat startling harmonies. It is altogether a charming number on the organ.
HEROLD, Louis Joseph FerdinandThe musical talent of this son of an able pianist soon became apparent, to the delight of his father, who entered him at the Conservatoire at Paris, the city in which he was born. Here he soon won the first prize for piano playing, and in 1812 won the "Grand Prix de Rome" for a cantata. He composed in many forms, but the stage furnished greater opportunity for a man gifted as he was with an ability to express emotion, and his known works are almost all in dramatic form. About twenty operas, an enormous number of piano pieces, a symphony, three string quartettes, and a number of other works were left by him. Of all this list, scarcely anything is known in America but the opera "Zampa."
346 Overture to ZampaThis immensely popular overture is about all that is known in America of this composer's work. It is delightfully rich in thematic material, and the workmanship shows the hand of a master. It is regrettable this composer's name and fame should rest on this single effort, for he doubtless wrote much besides this which is worthy of a hearing.
HORSMAN, Edward I., Jr. 1873-Was born in New York, March 10, 1873. Musically he is chiefly self-taught, although he had instruction from various teachers, principal among which was his course of counterpoint under S. Austen Pearce. As an organist, he has held positions at Old St. Anne's and at St. Luke's, Brooklyn, also St. Andrew's, New York.
250 The CurfewThis is a composition for the organ which was built upon a theme originally intended for a song setting to the first verse of Gray's "Elegy." It is difficult to say whether or not we have been deprived of any pleasure by the change of heart on the part of the composer. The one certain thing is that this American has given us a charming number, and one which improves upon acquaintance.
HUMPERDINCK, Engelbert 1854-Hwmperdinck was born at Siegburg in the Rhine provinces, September 1, 1854. He displayed a talent for music early in life, but was the recipient of no really capable instruction until he was eighteen years old, at which tilme he entered the Conservatorium at Cologne, where he studied with Ferdinand Hiller. While there he wrote a String Quartette which won for him the Frankfurt Mozart Stipendium, which enabled him to go to Munich, where he studied with Lachner and later with Rheinberger at the Royal Music School. He next won the Mendelssohn Stiftung of Berlin. He went to Italy and met Wagner at Naples. Wagner invited him to go to Bayreuth. Here he became Wagner's valuable assistant in the production of "Parsifal." Once more, however, his talent and industry won him a prize, this time the Meyerbeer prize of Berlin, and once more he started south. He traveled through Italy, France and Spain, remaining two years in the latter country, teaching theory in the Conservatoire at Barcelona. Returning to Cologne he was professor at the Hoch Conservatorium from 1890 till 1896.
All this time he had been busy with his pen, and had written a great deal of very beautiful music. His best-known work, an opera, "Hansel und Gretel," for which his sister wrote the libretto, was produced at Weimar in 1893 with tremendous success. It is now one of the standard operas, and is deserving of the high regard it enjoys. Humperdinck was a rare master of the techniq,ue of composition~ and while never short of original thematic matter, was particularly fond of folk tunes, many of which he used.
337 Hansel and Gretel-VorspielThis is one of the loveliest of overtures. The story is of course based on one of Grimm's Fairy Tales, and nothing could be more beautifuI than the music or the story which suggested it. While the form is more or less free, it betrays unmistakably the wonderful technique of the composer. It is interesting to note the way the first theme is used as an accompanimental figure in the latter part of the overture. In fact the development of the thematic material is nothing short of marvelous. All that can result from fine material and exquisite workmanship is found here, and such proximity to absolute perfection has seldom been attained.
339 "Evening Prayer and Dance of Angels"In this number the composer has used as a first part or prayer, the first theme of the Vorspiel. and surely nothing of a more devotional nature could have been chosen for the purpose. This theme reappears here in all its loveliness, and loses nothing of its charm by being linked to the Angels' Dance.
239 A Perfect DayA very popular and melodious song by a wellknown song writer of the present day. The composer's gift of melody is well displayed in this song.
352 Vision of Salome Waltz from the Ziegfeld Follies of 1910This is a very catchy waltz which became popular immediately upon its presentation in the Follies of 1910, and has retained its popularity to an extent seldom enjoyed by music of this kind. It still possesses all its charm, and will be found a very satisfactory roll either for dance purposes or as a musical number.
JENSEN, Adolf 1837-1879Jensen is known best as a song writer of the German school. His songs, while original, might have been written by anyone of several composers contemporaneous with him. He has written numerous short piano pieces, and several suites of pieces for piano and for voices. An unfinished opera was found after his death.
137 Murmuring ZephyrsA transcription of one of Jensen's most beautiful songs, and a good example of his ability in this form of writing. The melody is beautifully brought out in this roll, and it will be found a charming number for the organ.
199 Wedding Music, Op. 45. Bridal Song No.2All of the numbers of the set betray the lyric quality which is so characteristic of the composer's songs. The "Bridal Song" is perhaps the best known of the set, and is very effective on the organ as arranged in this roll.
200 Wedding Music, Op. 45. Round Dance No.3The round dance is the light number of this set, and shows Jensen in a frivolous mood not uncommon to him. It is effective on the organ, as are the other three of the set.
201 Wedding Music, Op. 45. March No.1This is one of four numbers originally written for pianoforte duet under the general title of "Hochzeitsmusik." This is a noble composition of a stately and dignified character. It will never supplant Mendelssohn's Wedding March, which fact, by the way, is nothing to its discredit, as many other wedding marches have been written, some perhaps as good musically as Mendelssohn's, but none seems to have struck the popular fancy to the same degree. This march suffers little by comparison, except when considered as a wedding march.
202 Wedding Music, Op. 45 Nocturne No 4This nocturne is quite different in character from most compositions bearing the same title. It will be found highly interesting if played in the proper tempo. It is more often played too slow than too fast. A safe rule might be to play it as fast as possible and yet preserve its inherent dignity. A few playing trials will reveal the proper tempo, and the result will be altogether charming.
KELER-BELA, Albert von 1820-1882The real name of this composer was Albert von Keler. He was unsuccessful as a farmer and as a lawyer. Music then seemed to him to be the thing he was best fitted for, and he began his musical education in earnest at the age of twenty-five. He spent about nine years in Vienna, stuilying with Schlessinger and Sechter, and playing at the theatre. In 1854 he took the leadership of Gung'l's band in Berlin, and from this time may be dated his career as a violinist, composer and conductor. His works reach the startling opus number of one hundred and thirty, consisting principally of overtures, dance music and pieces for solo violin, all of which are distinguished by their showy and brilliant style, and clever orchestration.
350 Hungarian Lustspiel OvertureThis is one of the numerous overtures by this prolific writer and perhaps the one best known to Americans. Keler-Bela wrote a Lustspiel Overture and a Hungarian Lustspiel Overture, which means that he wrote a jolly, playful overture and a jolly, playful Hungarian overture. The present one is so full of Gypsy atmosphere that it need not have been labeled. It will be found an altogether charming roll.
KEY, Francis Scott 1779-1848Francis Scott Key, the author of the Star-Spangled Banner, was the son of John Ross Key, who was an officer in the Revolutionary Army. He was a lawyer and a brilliant one, but it is as a patriot that his name has come down to us. What greater honor could come to a man than to write a song, the first strains of which cause a nation to stand in reverence of the flag which it loves!
362 Star-Spangled BannerThe story of this song which means so much to Americans is a well-known one, but it cannot be too well known, and for this reason we give it in detail.
After the British had burned Washington in 1814, they advanced toward Baltimore, meeting a small force of Americans, most of whom they captured and took to the large fleet which was preparing an attack on Fort McHenry. A Doctor Beans, an intimate friend of Key, was among the prisoners taken. To try to intercede for his friend's release, Key set out in a sailboat with a flag of truce, for Admiral Cockburn's ship. He pleaded successfully for his friend but they were prevented from returning to Baltimore until morning, by the bombardment of Fort McHenry, which stood in the way of the capture of Baltimore.
For such a patriot as was Key there was no such thing as sleep. Instead, he watched
And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.
The first verse was written during his detention, and the other two ashore. A tune was found ready-made to fit the words, and one with all the characteristics of a national air. "To Anacreon in Heaven" was written by John Stafford Smith, an English composer, and this tune was suggested by Judge Nicholson, Mr. Key's brother-in-law, as a fitting vehicle for the patriotic verses.
The present arrangement must be accepted as official, it having been made by a committee appointed by the United States Commissioner of Education. The committee consisted of Will Earhart (chairman), Walter Damrosch, Arnold J. Gantvoort, O. G. Sonneck and John Philip Sousa. The harmonization of the melody as in the roll is by Walter Damrosch.
KINDER, RalphRalph Kinder is the very well-known organist of Holy Trinity Church, Philadelphia. He is a brilliant player and has for years filled this large church with auditors at his Saturday afternoon recitals. His programmes are unusually interesting in that ke displays great skill in their arrangement and remarkable taste in the selection of compositions. Programme making is an art in which Mr. Kinder excels, and his technique is such that the whole range of organ literature is available.
333 In MoonlightThis very interesting number begins with a solo on the chimes. The middle part has a rhythm which might suggest a barcarole or boat song. After this interesting movement the first theme returns and serves as a close.
KREISLER, Fritz 1875-Fate played the trump card in tke destiny of this artist, as in tke case with many others. His earliest ambition was to be a tram conductor. Had he been born in America instead of Austria, he probably would have aspired to become a policeman. Certainly a classic from his bow is more pleasant to the ear than any "step lively please" he could ever have acquired. At ten he won the first prize at the Vienna Conservatory. and at twelve performed the unprecedented feat of capturing the Prix de Rome at the Paris Conservatoire. He toured America as a boy prodigy with Rosenthal, returning to Austria to serve his four years in the army. His next public appearance was in 1899, from which time his growth in all the essentials which make for greatness in art has been constant, until at this time he is very generally thought to be the greatest violinist alive.
351 Caprice ViennoisKreisler has been wonderfully successful in the arrangement of folk songs, etc., for the violin, and his playing of them has popularized them to the point that a violin recital programme without a Kreisler number or two is almost a curiosity. Just how much of the present roll is original and how much traditional is not a matter for discussion here. It is possible that in his work of transcribing, at which he is wonderfully adept, the composer has become so saturated with traditional styles that their influence has shown itself in his compositions. And it is no discredit to him if such is the case. We are concerned, however, only with the musical aspect of it, and for supreme beauty of its kind it is unexcelled. The dissimilitude of the themes forms a contrast which is both startling and pleasing.
In the introduction he indulges somewhat in violin gymnastics, but soon settles down to the lovely folk-like song which haunts one after a hearing or two. Then a lively theme which is distinctly violin music, works itself into a fury, and finally gives way to a repetition of the folk theme which makes a fitting ending and leaves one with a delightful impression of the entire number.
LEFEBURE-WELY, Louis James Alfred 1817-1869It is rather a rare occurrence for a child to learn his notes before he does the alphabet. Such was the case, however, with the subject of this paragraph. At eight years he played portions of the service for his father, who was organist at St. Roch. He succeeded his father upon the death of the latter, though only fifteen years of age. He wrote much for the piano, but it is as an organist and writer for the organ that he will be remembered.
264 Hymn of the NunsHere we have a pretty theme of a religious character, embellished in a charming way with a figure of beauty which constantly recurs above the main theme. It is a great favorite among organists and is pleasing when played from the roll.
361 Monastery BellsThis is a charming bit of writing of a kind that has to some extent gone out of fashion. It is good music, in fact, it must be, otherwise it would not have lived so long. The present roll uses both harp and chimes in a most delightful manner, and much pleasure is in store for those who are to hear it.
LEMARE, Edwin H. 1865-This best-known English organist was born in the Isle of Wight. From the time he entered the Royal Academy he has shown unusual talent. He excels as an executant of orchestral works on the organ, but his playing of legitimate organ works is no less attractive. He has composed many short pieces for the organ through which he has become widely known.
254 Andantino DbThis is a very popular example of this composer's work on short pieces for the organ. He has done many in this style, most of which are deservedly popular, but this is perhaps the best known.
LEMMENS, Nicholas Jaques 1828-1881A Belgian organist of fame. He was a pupil at the Brussels Conservatory and later became professor of organ playing at that institution. He left many compositions, chief of which is Ecole d'orgue, which has been adopted by the conservatories in Paris, Brussels, Madrid, etc.
283 FanfareThis is a fascinating bit of writing which is charming in its simplicity. It would seem that the composer had started out to have a good time and had succeeded.
LEONCAVALLO, Ruggiero 1858-Leoncavallo's first and greatest achievement was the opera "Pagliacci." He spent a number of years in an effort to get some of his early operas staged, but was not successful. "Pagliacci" was an immediate success and it is on this opera and "La Boheme" that his fame chiefly rests.
223 I Pagliacci-ProloguePerhaps no single number is better known to opera goers than this wonderful prologue. As its title indicates, it occurs at the very beginning of the opera, and takes the place of the overture. It is both dramatic and lyric, and presages the ability of the composer to do justice in a musical setting to the story which follows. It is sung by Tonio, the clown, who, after he has finished forecasting the story of the opera, claps his hands, singing, "Come then, ring up the curtain."
231 I Pagliacci -SerenadeNothing could be more graceful or dainty than this lovely serenade, which is sung by Beppe. He first tunes his mandolin, then sings:
"O Columbine, unbar to me
Thy lattice high,
I watch and sigh,
Longing to hear thee,
And be near thee, as the hours go by."
LILIUOKALANI, Queen (Lydia Kamekeha)This accomplished woman was the last Queen of the Hawaiian Islands, and was deposed in 1893. She was much beloved by her people for her charitable and kindly instincts. She was a patron of art and did much for the, progress of her little country. She died in 1917.
169 Aloha Oe (Farewell to Thee)The words and music of this song are by Hawaii's former queen. There is an appealing tinge of sadness in the music which is plainly evident in the words.
Proudly swept the rain cloud by the cliff
As on it glided through the trees,
Still followed with grief the liko,
The ahibilehua of the vale.
Thus sweet memories come back to me
Bringing fresh remembrance of the past
Dearest one, yes, thou art mine own,
From thee true love shall ne'er depart.
I have seen and watched thy loveliness, Thou sweet rose of Maunawili, And 'tis there the birds oft love to dwell And sip the honey from thy lips.
LISZT, Franz 1811-1886After Liszt had made for himself a reputation which nothing could shake, his principal aim in life seemed to be to help to lead others into the light of public favor. He delighted in cramming down the throats of the unappreciative public the works of unknown and struggling composers in whom he discovered the spark of genius. It is generally accepted that he was the greatest pianist of all time. As a composer he ranks very high, and was the originator of the orchestral form known as the "Symphonic Poem." As an arranger of well-known airs into concert pieces for the piano, he was without an equal. A piano recital without a Liszt composition is a rarity.
151 Les PreludesThis is one of a series of twelve orchestral compositions to which Liszt applied the title Symphonic Poem. They are all more or less symphonic in treatment, but are nevertheless free of many of the conventions of the real symphony. The title has been used by many composers since Liszt, when an attempt is made to produce a musical equivalent to a poetical idea.
The resemblance of this form to the symphony lies in the fact that the themes are developed, and the lack of resemblance to the symphony, in the fact that they are not developed according to the accepted rule.
Liszt's inspiration for this particular one is found in Lamartine's "Meditations Poetiques":
"What is life but a series of preludes to that unknown song, the first solemn note of which is sounded by death? Love forms the enchanted daybreak of every life; but what is the destiny where the first delights of happiness are not interrupted by some storm, whose fatal breath dissipates its fair illusion, whose fell lightning consumes its altar? And what wounded spirit, when one of its tempests is over, does not seek to rest its memories in the sweet calm of country life? Yet man does not resign himself long to enjoy the beneficent tepidity which first charmed him on Nature's bosom, and when 'the trumpet's loud clangor has called him to arms' he rushes to the post of danger, whatever may be the war that calls him to the ranks, to find in battle the full consciousness of himself and the complete possession of his strength."
A careful reading of the above paragraph will add to the enjoyment and understanding of this composition.
194 Rhapsodie Hongroise, No.2This is one of a number of compositions which bear the same title, and which have been popular for many years. They afford the pianist an excellent opportunity to display his technique and are not without musical merit. The form is one of Liszt's own, beginning with a slow introduction (Lassan) usually in a minor key, of a sad character. The middle part (Frischka) is of a lively nature, while the finale (Czardas) is wild and riotous. The present rhapsody is in this form, and is the most popular one of the set.
269 Consolation, in DbThis a lyric of much charm. The melody as well as certain of the inner parts is brought out on the organ in a way not easily accomplished . on the piano.
319 LiebestraumThis composition was originally a song, and is one of three which were written under the title given above. As we have it on the roll it is a transcription by the composer of the third song of the set. It is so much better known than the other two, that it is invariably referred to as "Liszt's Liebestraum," the number rarely being given. It has a beautiful sustained melody which is never forgotten when once it has made its imprint on one's memory. The organ does it full justice, and leaves nothing to be desired in the effect produced.
323 Thou Art Like a FlowerThis is a setting of the famous poem by Heine, "Du bist wie eine Blume." This lovely poem has received attention by nearly all the great composers, and very many of those who could hardly be called great. It would be safe to say that no less than a thousand good settings exist. Of all these, those by Liszt, Schumann and Rubinstein are best known, and the one by Liszt does not suffer by comparison with any of the others.
253 Little Grey Home in the WestThis is a deservedly popular little ballad and comes at a time when it seems that the art of writing a ballad which will sing itself has all but been lost.
MacDOWELL, Edward Alexander 1861-1908This sterling composer was born in New York City, and America is proud to own him. His piano playing was notable, and he has left numerous compositions which evidence a thorough knowledge of piano technique. He played a concerto of his own for Liszt, and so taken with his playing was the great master that he invited MacDowell to play at the approaching meeting of the Deutscher Musikverein at Zurich. He accepted, and made a good impression with his first pianoforte suite. While perfectly at home in the larger forms, it is through his numerous short pieces for the piano, and his songs, that he has endeared himself to the great musical public. He is thought by many to be the best composer that America has ever produced, and they are not far wrong.
135 Clair de Lune (Moonlight)This American composer has written many lovely compositions, of a type of which this one is a good example. The tender, plaintive tune with which it begins is very effective on the oboe, indeed the use of the oboe all through for the solo part can hardly be improved upon because of its plaintive tone quality.
A brighter middle part in a major key serves to make a most delightful and striking contrast to the sombre first theme, which finally is again heard serving quite as appropriately as a closing theme.
236 Woodland Sketches To a Wild Rose" "Will o' the Wisp"Two numbers of MacDowell's dainty suite for piano on one roll. "To a Wild Rose" is as pretty a bit of plaintive melody as could have been written by anyone, nor is the melody its only charm, for the appropriateness of the harmony is just as striking as the melody is beautiful. It is altogether lovely, and wonderfully effective on the organ.
"Will o' the Wisp" is a riot of notes chasing each other hither and yon and is in wonderful contrast to the first number.
338 A. D. MDCXXThis composition is one of those mysterious bits of writing of which MacDowell was so fond, and which he did in a manner unequaled. The rhythm strongly suggests the motion of the sea, as was his evident intention. Much charm is wrapped up in this little roll, and it will be found no less satisfactory on the organ than the piano, for which it was written.
MacFARLANE, Will C. 1870-William Charles MacFarlane is one of the most famous of the living organists. He was born in London on October 13, 1870, and was brought to New York when four years old. Since he came to this country at so early an age, and received all his musical education here, we may justily claim him as an American organist. He was Samuel P.Warren's pupil for a number of years and made his debut in 1886. He has played recitals in all the principal cities and his career both as organist and composer has been a brilliant one.
332 Evening Bells and Cradle SongHere is a very fine example of the proper use of chimes. A very familiar bell phrase is first heard, then the bells find use as an obligato to a very cleverly written bit of real organ music, which is followed by a charming middle part which is the Cradle Song. The first theme returns and wends its way to a fitting close.
255 I Hear You Calling MeA very pretty song which had the good fortune to be introduced to the public by a great singer whose art has made it one of the things which every music library must contain.
MARTINI, Giovanni Battista 1706-1784This composer was born in Bologna, April 24, 1706, and died in 1784. He was known as Padre Martini. He is accorded a high place among musicians of the eighteenth century. He was a student of theology and philosophy and was regarded an expert violinist. He was famous throughout Europe, as teacher of music, composed masses. requiems. and other church compositions. He also wrote a history of music.
298 Gavotte in FThis is a quaint and charming composition with a beautiful melody forming the basis of it. It is written with delicate grace throughout and concludes in a melody of great tenderness.
MASCAGNI, Pietro 1868-"Cavalleria Rusticana" was first produced in Rome in 1890 and has held the stage as a favorite among opera goers ever since. It is Mascagni's only claim to distinction. He has tried repeatedly to equal it, but that final critic-the public-has so far withheld its official stamp of approval. His "Iris," on a Japanese subject, is his next best work and shows musicianly skill. Well-informed audiences claim, however, to discover an altogether too glaring plagiarism of Wagner to accept it.
105 Intermezzo from Cavalleria RusticanaAt the first American performance of this opera the reception given the Intermezzo made it necessary to play it five times, the audience refusing to allow the opera to proceed until it had its fill of this captivating melody. The millions who have heard it since that time have added their approval. The opening is a dainty piece of part writing, giving way presently to the beautiful melody with harp accompaniment.
MASSENET, Jules Frederic Emile 1842-This eminent French composer was educated at the Paris Conservatoire. He won various prizes while there, both for playing, and for composition. In his first opera, which has been overshadowed by later efforts, he showed himself a musician worthy of attention.
While his fame rests chiefly upon his operas, of which perhaps "Manon" is the most popular, he has shown himself to good advantage in many other forms, having written numerous orchestral suites which are popular with attendants at orchestral concerts, and a few oratorios which are extremely meritorious.
107 Meditation-ThaisThis is an enormously popular number from an opera that, as a whole, is not so well known as some others by the same composer. It is a delightfully fervent melody and is played by the orchestra while the monk Athanael is beseeching Thais to give up her life of sin.
143 AngelusWhile Massenet's principal claim to distinction lies with his operas, he has nevertheless written many short compositions which endear him to the musical public, and have given him a host of admirers to whom he never would have been known through his operas alone. His "Angelus" is a dainty, imaginative bit which has only to be heard in the organ arrangement to be liked.
168 Elegie Op. 10A very fine example of graceful melody from a suite by this famous composer. It is plaintive in the extreme and is of the type which grows more beautiful the oftener it is heard. The organ arrangement contrasts the imitating voices with exceptional effect.
309 Last Sleep of the VirginThis is a religious prelude, which begins with chords followed by an effective theme which rises impressively in this composer's masterful way. There is, of course, a contrasting section which is most pleasing and the magnificent tonal effects of the first part of the composition are again resorted to.
357 Vision FugitiveThis is a bass song from a sacred opera which had its premier performance December 19, 1881, at Brussels, where it met with success for a season, and failed in Paris, where it was presented in 1884. Many years after it met with much favor in Paris, and a somewhat garbled version was given with success at Covent Garden as "Salome." It is a charming song and a fine bit of writing by one of the chief exponents of the French school.
MENDELSSOHN-BARTHOLDI, Jakob Ludwig Felix 1809-1847Rarely in the world's history has so short a life been filled with so many great deeds, and rarely has recognition come to anyone during life as it did to Mendelssohn. His parents had the means to educate him liberally, and his refined temperament was inherited. It would seem, indeed, that here were the ideal conditions-assuming the possession of unusual talent -to make a great composer. History does not agree with this conclusion, however. It seems to be a principle in nature's great plan that certain obstacles must be surmounted before greatness can be attained. Thus it would seem that his greatness lies in the fact that he became great without opposition. At nine years he made his first public appearance as a pianist. At thirteen his Opus 1, which is a string quartette, was written. Opuses 2 and 3 are in the same form. He has written in every conceivable form from a symphony to a song or charming little piece for piano, and his compositions from a standpoint of refinement are unequaled. He could be dignified or humorous at will, but to be vulgar or cheap was not for him.
120 Wedding March, from Midsummer Night's DreamThis is unquestionably the most popular number of the Midsummer Night's Dream music. It shares with the Bridal Chorus from "Lohengrin" the well-deserved place which both occupy in wedding ceremonies. Much wedding music has been written, but nothing that is likely to displace either of these in popular favor.
174 Midsummer Nights Dream NocturneMendelssohn included all the numbers of the Midsummer Night's Dream music in Opus 61, except the overture Opus 21, and places this lovely Nocturne as Number 7. As an example of loveliness the theme of this Nocturne has never been surpassed. It is of the type which sings itself into one's soul.
180 Overture to Midsummer Nights DreamThis wonderful overture, written in 1826, when Mendelssohn was seventeen, is the most remarkable example of musical precocity of which there is any record. It is doubtful if ever there has been written an overture that excels it in choice of theme or in masterful workmanship. The music for the play was not written until 1843, and when performed it was discovered that each theme of the overture had its proper place in the play. Thus was given to the world a forecast of a work to be written seventeen years hence. It is interesting to observe that when the whole work was finished, bringing about the real purpose for which the overture was written, the overture was performed in exactly the form in which it was originally written, not a note having been changed.
197 Spring Song (Song Without Words)This is perhaps the most admired of all the Songs Without Words, and as a dainty bit of writing it is surely unexcelled. It is in a style which was Mendelssohn's own, and is inimitable.
286 "On Wings of Song"As the title would indicate, this was written as a song. Its beauty, however, has not escaped the instrumentalists, and a number of arrangements have been made for various instruments. In this respect, the organ now comes into its own, and the result suffers not at all by companson.
302 Rondo CapricciosoIt is extremely doubtful if any other composer was as consistently characteristic as Mendelssohn. Very often Brahms might be taken for Beethoven; Franz, or even Jensen, for Schumann; Mozart for Haydn, and so on through the whole list of composers, with a very few exceptions, of which Mendelssohn is the most notable. Mendelssohn never wrote anything which could have been written by anyone else, or which could be mistaken for the work of any other composer by one familiar with his work. The famous Rondo which is the subject of this paragraph was written when Mendelssohn was about eighteen years old, and is as genuinely characteristic of him as anything produced in maturity. In fact, there seems to have been no formative period with him-he began at maturity.
The Introduction is essentially one of the loveliest of his Songs Without Words, which at the climax gracefully metamorphoses into a rollicking rondo, for which there is no duplicate in musical literature.
317 War March of the Priests Athalie Op. 74Mendelssohn composed the incidental music to "Athalie," a drama by Racine, at the request of the King of Prussia, who had appointed Mendelssohn his kapellmeister. The whole set includes besides this march six vocal numbers and an overture.
Little of this music is ever heard except the march, which is justly popular. It is often heard as an organ number, the organ being especially adapted to bring out the ponderous chords of the first and last parts as well as the delicate middle part.
321 Song Without Words. No. 34-Spinning SongThis is one of the famous Songs Without Words by this composer, and one of the most interesting of the set. It is given in all its beauty by the roll and in a way that it could not possibly be played on the piano. We suspect that a delightful surprise is in store for those who know it only as a piano number, when it is heard from the organ roll.
329 ConsolationThis is one of the deservedly popular Songs Without Words. The title, while not supplied by the composer, is highly appropriate. It is perhaps unknown just who is responsible for the names, but they are generally attributed to Steven Heller.
347 "O for the Wings of a Dove" from "Hear My Prayer"This motet is one of three sacred choruses which form a part of Op. 96. It was originally written for soprano solo, chorus and organ, but was later orchestrated. There are two distinct parts of this composition and the present roll gives the last half. Never was a melody written so full of longing, craving, yearning, as this one. It shows Mendelssohn in a new light to those familiar only with his instrumental music, and these will discover that he is no less capable as a composer of sacred music.
348 Scherzo (Midsummer Night's Dream)This is one of the numbers of the incidental music to Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream. All this music was written about seventeen years later than the overture. It possesses all the well-known Mendelssohn characteristics of grace and daintiness, and is such a Scherzo as no one else could have written. The organ roll does it full justice, and renders the number in a way second only to a Symphony Orchestra.
MEYERBEER, Giacomo (Properly Jakob Liebmann Beer) 1791-1864Meyerbeer was the son of a wealthy Berlin broker, Herz Beer. His mother (nee Amalie Wulf) was a woman of fine mind and high cultivation. A legacy from a rich relation named Meyer caused him to change his name to the form with which we are familiar. His genius came to the surface early in life and the celebrated Abbe Vogler of Darmstadt invited him to his home that he might guide him in his studies. At Darmstadt he learned the science of music and became famous as an organist with his fugal improvisations. He is known generally as a writer of French opera, and it is on his success in this line that his fame rests. "Robert le Diable" paved the way for his "Huguenots" and "Le Prophete." These three, with "Africaine," are his best-known works.
141 Coronation March from "The Prophet"This is one of the greatest of the many great marches which have been written by the masters of composition. It has the martial spirit to an extent which is not always attained. A remarkable contrasting of themes as well as the strong. and unfailing rhythm is responsible for the interest it arouses. The middle theme is one of those lovely creations, which once heard is never forgotten.
MOSZKOWSKI, Moritz 1851-Moszkowski is known as a pianist, composer and conductor. He studied at Dresden and Berlin, and became a teacher at Kullak Academy in the latter city. He later went to Paris. His compositions are mainly for the piano, but he has written an opera and some pieces for orchestra.
163 Serenade, Op. 15, No.1This charming piano piece has been so successfully transcribed for the violin, as well as for the organ, that comparatively few people know its original form. It is one of those lovely little bits, like Rubinstein's "Melody in F," which seem to fit all occasions and instruments. Starting with a quiet theme, it works up into a very effective climax, after which it returns to the first theme and finishes.
MOZART, Wolfgang Amadeus 1756-1791Of the musical prodigies whose development was a steady growth towards maturity, Mozart was the most remarkable. He showed his unusual talent as early as his third year, and from that time on the development of his genius was uninterrupted. His precocity excelled even that of Mendelssohn, and at maturity he was one of the world's greatest composers. A sister, Maria Anna, displayed almost as much talent as Wolfgang, and the father took both on a tour, giving concerts in various cities, exciting wonder and admiration everywhere. Realizing the wonderful talent of his boy, Mozart's father, himself a fine musician and composer, gave himself up entirely to the boy's education and to him belongs largely the credit for Mozart's greatness.
205 Jupiter Symphony. First MovementOf the forty-one symphonies written by Mozart, this one is, next to the one in G minor, the most often played. It sparkles with the genius of the composer, who, at the time it was written (1788), had reached the fullness of maturity. It is written in the symphonic form of the day, but shows somewhat greater freedom in the development of thematic material than his previous symphonies. It has always been a favorite number on orchestral programmes and it is not likely to lose its popularity.
206 Jupiter Symphony. "Andante Cantabile." Second MovementLike most of Mozart's slow movements, the theme of this one is simple in construction, but very soon becomes enveloped in a mass of embroidery, without, however, losing its identity to any great extent. Mozart's development of themes consisted largely in making them more and more ornate, a custom which had been handed down to him. It remained for Beethoven to break away from conventionalities and select development material from the themes themselves.
Much care has been expended in making this number the effective organ number it is, and the result justifies the effort.
207 Jupiter Symphony. Minuetto. Third MovementThis is one of many minuets of the period which either Mozart or Haydn might have written. Nor is it a reflection on Mozart to say that Haydn might have written it. It is epochal. Dignity and grace are its characteristics, and its charm lies as much in these qualities as in its musical beauty.
208 Jupiter Symphony. Allegro Molto. Final MovementThe Jupiter Symphony, while perhaps not so attractive from a purely musical standpoint as the one in G minor, will always hold the interest of the studious listener. We know of no better example of the technique of composition than this last movement affords. So wonderful is it structurally that it would seem that Mozart set about to see what he could do. A marvelous example of quintuple counterpoint, the equal of which is scarcely to be found elsewhere, so fluent as to make one lose sight of the enormous difficulty involved.
All of the five themes are easily discernible in the organ arrangement, which will prove a delight to the attentive listener.
NEVIN, Ethelbert 1862-1901An American composer, born near Pittsburgh. He studied first in Boston wnder B. J. Lang and Stephen A. Emery, then went to Berlin, where he had the good fortune to study wnder Von Bulow. He wrote many songs and short piano pieces, some of which have become immensely popular because of their beauty of theme and fine workmamhip. He has written in none of the larger forma.
106 "Rosary"This is one of the most popular songs ever written. The lovely sentiment of the words is undoubtedly as much the cause of its tremendous favor as the music or what is more likely the very appropriate wedding of words and music furnish the reason. In any case, the music is charming and always gives pleasure when played from this roll.
187 NarcissusNevin is well known as the composer of several short pieces for the piano, and did by far his best work in sketches of this kind. Narcissus is one of a set of Water Scenes and is not only the most popular but the best of the set. Without introduction it begins at once with a fascinating theme which is repeated an octave higher, a strongly contrasted middle part rises to an effective climax, after which the first theme is heard again with a charming imitative part above. It is a delightful bit of music and extremely effective on the organ.
245 Gondolieri-Op. 25, No.2This is a rollicking melody of a style seldom better written than by this composer. It is from a suite for piano, "A Day in Venice," but is no less effective as arranged in this case for the organ. In fact, the many imitative phrases, of which this composer is so fond, are given their proper importance by the organ in a way almost impossible on the piano.
248 Canzone Amorosa (Love Song)This is a lovely melody of a type which is extremely characteristic of the composer. Unfortunately it is often badly played, and much of the charm of the melody is lost because of the difficulty in bringing out a middle part on the piano. This cannot be said of the organ, for the theme is played as a solo, and contrasted with accompaniment color, so that none of its beauties is lost.
318 Mighty Lak' a RoseThis is a very appropriate setting to a negro dialect song by Frank L. Stanton, expressing the love and admiration of a negro "mammy" for her baby. Nevin has fully caught the spirit of the words and so cleverly translated them into sound that a hearing will almost make one think what the words say.
"Sweetest li'l' feller
Dunno what to call him,
But he mighty lak' a rose."
NICOLAI, Carl Otto Ehrenfried 1810-1849In his youth his home was so wncongenial that he ran away. His education was neglected in every branch except the piano. He found a protector in one Adler, who assisted him in his studies and later sent him to Berlin, where he progressed rapidly in his chosen profession. He wrote a number of operas, of which "The Merry Wives of Windsor" is the most popular.
225 Overture, "Merry Wives of Windsor"While the opera from which this overture is taken is rarely heard in this country, it is one of the most popular operas in Europe. The overture is, however, familiar to American audiences as it is frequently a part of orchestral programmes of the lighter order. It is lovely in theme and of masterful workmanship.
OFFENBACH, Jacques 1819-1880Offenbach has been called a musical caricaturist, and not without good reason, as his enormously developed sense of the ridiculous in music would seem to warrant the use of the title applied to artists with like propensities. He wrote about ninety operettas and operas almost none of which have a serious vein except the "Tales of Hoffmann," which betrays his ability along legitimate lines and shows us what might have been expected from him, had he given more attention to serious work. It is principaUy through his "Tales of Hoffmann" that his name will live. His real name was Levy, but he took the name he used from the place of his birth, Offenbach-on-Main. In his youth he went to Paris to study the violoncello and got most of his early experience playing the cello in orchestras.
121 Barcarole from Tales of HoffmannThis little gem is from almost the only serious opera in a list of about ninety by this composer. It is from the third act and is perhaps the most popular excerpt from this justly popular opera, which has for some years enjoyed a place in the repertoire of most opera companies both in America and Europe.
PUCCINI, Giacomo 1858-Puccini was one of a family which from the time of his great-great-grandfather produced an uninterrupted line of musicians. His name earned for him a pension from the Queen of Italy which made it possible for him to enter the Conservatory at Milan. He is known best as a composer of operas, chief among which are La Boheme, Tosca, and Madame Butterfly.
272 La Boheme SelectionsThis is an interesting collection of the principal and best-known numbers from the opera, "La Boheme." It will enable lovers of this opera to recall with pleasure many of the scenes of the opera in a manner quite impossible without the aid of music.
353 Selections from "Madame Butterfly"The best-known tunes in this most popular of Puccini's opera are well represented in this roll, and to those who are fond of the opera the roll will revive many pleasant memories. The judicious use of the Vox Humana and Harp add wonderfully to the color of this charming music.
RACHMANINOFF, Sergei Vassilievich 1873-This most talented of all the younger school of Russion composers showed his natural ability at a very early age. At nine years he entered the Conservatory at St. Petersburg, remaining there three years, when he was transferred to the Conservatory at Moscow, where he studied the piano with Tschaikowsky's friend, Zvierev, also with Siloti. Taniev and Arensky were his teachers in theory and composition. He is famous not only as a composer but also as a conductor.
260 Prelude in C# Minor -Op. 3, No.2This very wonderful composition has in it something beside its true musical worth. It has an appeal to the unmusical, as well as the cultured musician who values it because of its beauty of form and wonderful harmonic progressions. Few indeed are the compositions of so high a degree of excellence which are so generally admired. It is a classic and deserving of its popularity.
RAFF, Joseph Joachim 1822-1882He was too poor to afford a teacher, and he taught himself both in playing and in composition until he was past twenty. At about this time he sent some manuscript to Mendelssohn, who discovered talent and recommended him to Breitkopf & Hartel, the publishers. He seems to have started his avalanche of compositions at this time. His extreme poverty made it necessary that "pot boilera" should receive most of his attention, but he found time to write much excellent music. A list of his compositions includes no leas than eleven symphonies, and ten atring quartettes, Octettes, aextettes, trios, piano pieces, songs and all known forma of writing are included in hia two hundred and sixteen numbered works.
118 CavatinaMany cavatinas have been written, and it is a form which has not been neglected by the great composers. It would be unfair to certain other composers to say that this number is superior to any other. Nevertheless, never was anything written in any form which has taken so great hold on music lovers generally. It was composed for the violin, is an essential part of the curriculum of music schools and is played by students and artists the world over. It is a charming little work, and very effective on the organ.
294 Festival MarchThis is a very fine example of martial music from the pen of a man who neglected none of the accepted forms of composition, and who in this instance has adhered strictly to the march form of his time. This first theme is strong and well marked, and while of a considerable length it is never uninteresting. The middle part or trio is quiet and well contrasted. The first theme is used again to conclude the march. It is a fine example of workmanship and particularly interesting on the organ.
ROSSINI, Gioachino Antonio 1792-1868One might think, to read some biographies of Rossini, that his chief claim to distinction was his laziness. As he wrote upwards of fifty operas, fourteen cantatas, six pretentious sacred works and twelve miscellaneous vocal numbers, it is a little difficult to understand upon what grounds he was considered lazy. Then, too, Rossini wrote twenty of these operas in eight years. What matters it if he wrote some or all of them in bed? If a sheet of manuscript fell on the floor, surely it was his business if he preferred to rewrite it rather than to get out of bed to get it. Lazy or not, he wrote a great deal of very fine music, much of which will be highly regarded for years to come unless present indications fail.
110 Overture to William TellThis overture is surpassed by nothing in the opera to which it belongs. As an orchestral concert number it is without a rival in the popularity it enjoys. The opening movement is serene and lovely, entirely on the strings. Suddenly the storm breaks and there is a veritable riot of sound. The storm over, there is heard the plaintive piping of Alpine herders, beautifully interwoven with a gorgeous flute obligato. The finale is a stirring, martial strain, jubilant and victorious in character.
134 Cujus Animam-Stabat MaterThis tenor aria from Rossini's greatest sacred work is melodiously characteristic of the composer he wrote upwards of fifty operas, fourteen cantatas, It requires a voice of more than ordinary range and a singer of exceptional ability to produce a satisfactory result vocally. As an instrumental number it offers no such difficulties, and it it will be found particularly effective on the organ.
204 Overture to "Semiramide"This overture, while not considered to be Rossini's best effort, is no less a popular favorite, and justly so. It is certainly the most attractive of those composed in what might be called the strict Italian style. The slow movement after the introduction is a sample of the delicious harmony of which Rossini was master. This is followed by a sprightly tune in common time which contains phrases repeated again and again after the Italian fashion of that time. This repetition does not grow tiresome, however, and this roll is sure to bring pleasure to all who hear it played.
RUBINSTEIN, Anton Gregor 1830-1894As a perfect technician Rubinstein was about tke only rival Liszt ever had, but tke charm of kis playing was not alone due to his great tecknique. He had the ability to depict every mood from a consuming passion to a peaceful calm, and he took his audiences with him wkatever his mood. As a composer ke stands high but not with tke greatest. His piano compositions betray his mastery of piano technique as might be expected. He wrote well for the voice, and many of his songs will live. The larger forms were not neglected by him, thougk to-day his operas and oratorios are rarely performed. Five symphonies, only one of wkich is at all popular, and numerous concertos for various instruments are among his pretentious works. While we should not care to do without his compositions, it is as one of tke very greatest pianists that he must be remembered.
124 Melody in FThis charming melody was made popular by the composer himself when he visited this country in 1872-73. There are many to whom the name of Rubinstein would be unknown except for this always popular melody. Like other favorites, it has been performed on various solo instruments, and has even taken the form of a vocal solo and an anthem. It never fails of its charm in whatever form it is heard.
142 Bayadere Dance No. 1A ballet dance from a little-known opera, "Feramorz," the libretto of which was founded on Thomas Moore's "Lalla Rookh." It is Oriental in style, melodious in the extreme and an altogether charming bit of writing.
222 Feramorz-Torchlight DanceThe third of a set of four dances contained in the opera "Feramorz." Little is known by the general public of the opera except the dances, which happily are popular, and deservedly so. The charming counterpoint in this number is beautifully brought out in the roll and the organ production will be found entirely satisfactory to lovers of orchestra music.
276 Kamennoi-Ostrow-Op. 10, No. 22This is the twenty-second portrait in an album of twenty-four written by the composer during his stay at Kamennoi-Ostrow, as court pianist to the Russian Emperor.
The subject of this portrait is Mlle. Anna de Friedebourg, a German lady in whom Rubinstein was much interested.
Whether the hearer can see in the lovely lyric theme the character of the lady, or in the accompaniment the sheen of the moon through the trees, matters little. The beauty of the composition as music alone suffices. Of course there are chapel bells, priests' chants, church organs, and numerous other things, which present for imaginative flights a wide enough field to satisfy the most exacting.
SAINT-SAENS, Charles Camille 1835-A French composer of the first rank. His wonderful knowledge of the technique of composition has caused some critics to allege that he lacks creative genius. In other words the charm of his composition is sometimes said to be due to fine workmanship rather than to fine thematic material. Perhaps this is true, and if so, it is the very reason for his large following among real musicians. Good and bad embroidery, for instance, are made of the same material. After all, within reason, it is workmanship that counts most. No musical form was neglected by this great composer. We have from his pen symphonics, operas, cantatas, chamber music, songs and piano pieces; even for the despised harmonium, his first love, he wrote three pieces.
128 Benediction NuptialeA dainty bit of wedding music is this, and from a composer from whom we might well expect just such an example of loveliness. Nor is it inappropriately named, for it breathes a prayerful blessing from beginning to end. Originally written for the organ, the roll is of course extremely effective.
228 "My Heart at Thy Dear Voice"This is a lovely aria from the biblical opera, "Samson and Dalilah." The work is seldom done in its entirety in this country, but this aria is frequently heard. The fine cantabile of the theme with the wonderfully contrasted accompaniment affords the organ an opportunity which is not always present.
251 Le Cygne (The Swan)This little piece is familiar to most people as a cello or violin solo, but it will be found quite as effective on the organ. The harp-like effect of the accompaniment as arranged in this roll is both interesting and beautiful.
SALOME, Theodore Cesar 1834-1896A French organist born in 1834; died in 1896. He studied under Ambroise Thomas at the Paris Conservatoire, where he won the Prix de Rome. He composed many works for the organ.
306 Cantilene. Transcription by GuilmantThis is a sentimental composition with a touch of sadness. The melody adds to the beauty of the theme by a strain of tender feeling. Guilmant's transcription will be found especially pleasing.
SCHARWENKA, Franz Xaver 1850-Many of the concert goers of about twenty-five years ago will recall with pleasure the marvelous playing of this great pianist. He came to America the same year as Paderewski, and much controversy was indulged in as to their respective abilities. Of course nothing is ever accomplished by such controversy, and each retained his own following. Certainly for beauty of tone no man ever surpassed Scharwenka. His technical equipment is equal to anything, and his playing invariably stamps him as a very great musician. His compositions always possess charm, and he has written in practically every orthodox form. At the present time Scharwenka lives in Berlin, where he leads a very busy life as a teacher and composer.
297 Polish DancePerhaps nothing of equal difficulty is as well known as this charming bit of dance music. It was well known when Scharwenka came to America, and he played it hundreds of times on his tours. Many times an audience refused to vacate until he gave his conception of this bit of his own work.
The organ is well qualified to bring out its beauties, and we suspect that many charming effects will be heard for the first time from the roll, especially by those who never heard the composer play it.
SCHUBERT, Franz Peter 1797-1828Of all the younger contemporaries of Beethoven, Schubert was the most gifted; his talent for music manifesting itself at an early age, he readily mastered the violin and piano. He also began to compose and his ability astounded his teachers, who proclaimed him a genius. Handel, Bach, Mozart and Haydn wrote with great rapidity, but nothing like that of Schubert. His ideas flowed faster than he could write them; in fact, after reading a poem once or twice he had a beautiful and appropriate setting for it. His earliest known composition was a fantasie for piano, which he composed at the age of thirteen. At fifteen he wrote some larger instrumental works. His most fruitful year was 1815, his compositions for that year totaling one hundred and ninety-five, embracing symphonies, masses, songs and choral and chamber music. Schumann said of him, "He has tones for the most delicate shades of feelings, thoughts, even accidents and occurrences of life. Manifold though the passions and acts of men may be, manifold is Schubert's music. That which his eye sees, his hand touches, becomes transformed to music." >h4>136 Serenade There is probably no greater favorite among the Schubert songs than this. It was one of the very last songs he wrote, and with a few others was published under the title, "Swan Songs." A verse will suffice to describe the mood.
Thro' the night, my songs entreating
Gently plead with thee;
While the silent hours are fleeting,
Dearest, come to me!
173 Moment Musical, Op. 92, No.2As an example of Schubert's ability to make much of a simple theme, this little number is remarkable. Anyone else would have made of this same rhythm a very good tune for hurdygurdy purposes, but certainly not the sparkling bit of real music which Schubert has given us.
203 Allegro Moderato. Unfinished Symphony (B Minor)Schubert's first symphony was written in 1814, his eighteenth year. Between this date and 1818 five more were written. While these six symphonies are in places slightly reminiscent of Haydn and Mozart, and to a lesser degree of Beethoven, one cannot listen to any of them without a feeling that a new master of orchestral composition has arrived.
In the B Minor (1822) we have a composition so wonderfully original that no part of it is traceable to any influence other than the great genius possessed in the frail body of the composer.
For beauty of themes and harmonies, nothing can surpass this work. A more perfect example of composition does not exist.
209 Andante con moto. Unfinished Symphony (B Minor)This divine slow movement is an example of Schubert at his very best. In it he has shown his wonderful facility of modulation, and given us a further taste of luscious melody, marvelously simple and appealing. No one could have done it but Schubert, and it is doubtful if any single composition is so perfectly satisfying to as great a number of people. One need not be a musician to enjoy it; on the other hand, the profoundest musical knowledge is necessary to fathom its full depth of beauty.
SCHUMANN, Robert Alexander 1810-1856Not until Schumann was twenty years old did he decide finaUy to become a musician, although we have his word for it that he began to compose before he was seven. His father, who had some reputation as an author, was in sympathy with his son's leaning toward art, but his mother wanted him to study law. Only after years of more or less perfunctory study of law did he finally obtain his mother's reluctant consent to apply himself solely to music. His first ambition was to become a great pianist and such he should have been but for an overanxiety to obtain finger dexterity in the shortest possible time. He invented a contrivance to hold back the third finger while he practised with the other fingers. This resulted in strained tendons and a crippled finger which remained useless through life. He now felt that his time spent in the study of law and in piano practice was lost, and gave the study of composition hia whole attention. Tragic as was Schumann's emperience, it seems that it might have been Fate's way of compelling him to do what he was destined to do, and the world would surely have lost much but for his seeming misfortune. He left us hundreds of compositions, which represent every possible form, and so wonderful are all that none can say at which form he was best. Though his disposition was quiet and dignified, he was at times jovial, and he has given us all his moods in his compositions.
104 Traumerei and RomanzaWho of the great composers has not written a Traumerei? Nearly all have done it. How many of their names would have become immortal through the writing of a Traumerei alone? Just one, and his name is Schumann. Anything in the way of a description is useless, for Traumerei has a different message for all its hearers. The one point upon which all agree is its superlative beauty.
The Romanza which forms a part of this roll, while a separate and distinct number, is so aptly fitted to Traumerei that the latter is almost never played without the Romanza. The orthodox method of using the Romanza as a middle and contrasting part is followed in this roll. Traumerei being used again after the Romanza.
176 Slumber SongThis is one of Schumann's many short pieces for the piano. No one wrote better for the piano than Schumann, and he was especially happy in short pieces such as this. The charm in this slumber song, aside from the beauty of the theme, is due largely to the syncopated accompaniment. The strong contrast between the first and second themes also contributes largely to the interest.
325 Two GrenadiersThis is a very great song, not greater than might be expected from Schumann, but fully up to the standard. The treatment of the text is appropriate, and the final episode wherein he has introduced the Marseillaise is wonderfully stirring. It is one of the classics that everyone should know.
SEELING, Hans 1828-1862This composer was born in 1828 at Prague. He died in 1862. Seeling won recognition as a pianist, making his first public appearance in Italy and later making concert tours through France and Germany.
281 LorelyThis piece was written for the piano and must not be confused with the German folk song of the same name. It contains a broad melody to a running accompaniment and is most effective.
SIBELIUS, Jean 1865-Like Tschaikowsky and many others, Sibelius was made by his parents to study law. His unusual talent asserted itself, however, and he began to study music seriously at the conservatorium, and later studied composition wnder Becker at Berlin and Goldmark at Vienna. His compositions all show the influence of the Finnish Folk Song and this characteristic, combined with his great skill in writing and colorful scoring, makes him a great favorite among concert goers. His works include all forms from a song to a symphony.
220 Valse TriesteThis lively and unique valse is from the incidental music to the drama "Kuolema"-a drama of death. It is highly characteristic of Sibelius and we know of no other composer who could have written it. The first theme is almost gruesome, but the middle part is in striking contrast. Altogether it is as charming a bit of orchestral writing as one could desire, and the organ is a particularly effective vehicle for its expression.
271 Finlandia (Tone Poem)This is one of the chief works of this Finnish composer, and certainly the best known. Much could be said about it, but it speaks for itself. Like all of his work, it smacks of folk song. Although the composer says he does not use folk song, he is evidently unable to get away from its influence; indeed, it would be a pity if he could. Its wonderful weirdness is chiefest of its charms, and one which it would lack if he stooped to conventional methods. The whole number is lovely on the organ, but the wonderful chorale-like movement is unequaled.
SMETANA, Friedrich 1824-1884This first great Bohemian composer was born at Leitomischl. He studied at Prague with Proksch and later with Liszt. He was a famous pianist, and opened a school at Prague, where he also married the pianiste, Katharina Kolar. In 1856 he became director of the Philharmonic Society at Gothenburg, Sweden, where his wife died in 1860. After a tour of Sweden in 1861 he returned to his native country and became chief conductor of the National Theatre in Prague. Here he brought out his famous opera, "The Bartered Bride." Numerous works in all forms were written by him, but the two which are best known and have perhaps the most merit are the opera mentioned above and a string quartette, "Aus Meinen Leben" (Out of My Life), which is a very remarkable work. In the finale of this quartette there is a high note which is persistently heard and which is supposed to represent a similar sound which he constantly heard as a result of his deafness. He died in an insane asylum at Prague.
315 "The Bartered Bride"-OvertureThis work was first produced at Prague in 1866. It met with instant success and has since become a standard in Europe. The overture is a general favorite with orchestra conductors and with the public, being very often heard at orchestral concerts. This roll is most effective in that all the counter themes are brought out in a way that they may be heard and understood. In a word, the organ gives from the roll as complete a rendition as does the orchestra.
SOUSA, John Philip 1856-John Philip Sousa is an American. He was born in Washington, D. C. His musical talent asserted itself early in life, and he studied the violin. He was violinist in the orchestra led by Offenbach during his visit to America in 1877. He enlisted in the service of the United States in 1880 and was appointed Director of the Marine Band. which became famous under his directorship. He later formed a band organization of his own and toured the world. He composed a few comic operas, some of which enjoyed notable popularity. but it is his fascinating marches that endear him to the public. The march as he wrote it is largely an original form, and the form has been used to the practical exclusion of all others since.
278 King Cotton MarchThis march is too well known to require description of any kind. It will suffice to say that it is one of the very best by this composer. When this is said it is to be assumed that it is one of the best by any composer, for certainly no one has done better work of this kind than our own John Philip Sousa.
STEBBINS, C. A.
164 In SummerThis delightful bit opens with a mysterious harmonic progression, and is followed by one of the quaintest themes imaginable. The middle section works up to a tremendous climax which suddenly stops to permit a rehearing of the first theme. The close is effectively brought about by the use of chords suggesting those used in the introduction.
STRAUSS, Johann 1825-1899This son of an innkeeper first distinguished himself by running away from a bookbinder to whom his father apprenticed him. A friend found him and brought him back home, prevailing upon his parents to allow him to take the boy and teach him music. This was the inauspicious beginning of the greatest dance-music writer of the world. His works are famous for their bewitching rhythms and tuneful themes. He also was famous as a conductor, traveling all over Europe with an orchestra, receiving the highest honors everywhere he played.
192 Blue Danube WaltzThis tuneful waltz has impressed itself on the minds of thousands and has made Johann Strauss known as the WaItz King, and was imported into America by the late Theodore Thomas, who knew its composer intimately and admired the waltz when he heard it in Vienna. It was first performed in America in New York, in 1867. Since then, it has been heard throughout the country and its admirers are legion.
STRAUSS, Richard 1864-Coming of a musical family, he began to play the piano at four, and to compose at six. Starting out with classical ideals, he has become the last word in modern musical thought. Some consider this a transition from the sublime to the ridiculous, others not. It will take many years to decide. Beethoven sounds very well to most of us, but time was when he was thought just as radical as we now think Strauss to be. At any rate, it is better to enjoy what we can of his writing than to find fault about that we do not like. His best-known works, aside from his songs, and the works upon which his reputation stands, are two tone poems, "Tod und Verklarung" and "Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche" for orchestra, and his opera "Salome." These compositions are also responsible for most of the controversy concerning him.
179 At the Spring-Op. 9, No.2This is a charming melody over a rippling accompaniment, perhaps intended to represent the incessant purling of the spring. The melody is one of wonderful simplicity considering that we are apt to think that the name "Strauss" and the word "complexity" are synonymous. The composer's true greatness is proven by his ability to write a charming little thing such as this no less than in the writing of some of his massive and complex scores.
213 WiegenliedThis number is interesting aside from its musical beauty, in that it proves that a composer whom we are accustomed to think of as a writer of the most complex melodies and harmonies can write in a charmingly simple style. Here is a sustained melody which moves smoothly along, supported by plain broken chords which are so effective on the organ as to leave nothing to be desired.
SULLIVAN, Sir Arthur Seymour 1842-1900From a viewpoint of versatility, Sullivan had no superior. Greater things have been written than anything he has left us, but it is doubtful if any nation will ever produce a man with the ability to write fitting music for a given situation to the degree that Sullivan had that ability. His music is beautiful always from a musical point of view, but when the situation for which it was written is taken into account, it is superlative. His mastery of the technique of composition was so great that it seemed impossible for him to write anything below the very high standard by which we know him. The "Mikado" and the "Lost Chord" have immortalized him, of course, but he has stronger claims on fame than either or both of these numbers. His compositions include practically all known forms, symphonies, concertos, suites for orchestra, oratorios, songs, etc.
103 The Lost ChordThis is perhaps the most popular song ever written. Sullivan wrote it one night while he was watching at the deathbed of his brother. The patient had lapsed into a peaceful slumber, when Sullivan took up a volume of Adelaide Procter's poems. He had tried before to set the words of this song, but unsuccessfully. In the deathlike stillness of the night, however, the immortal music came to him, and was written down. The music has immortalized the poem.
SUPPE, Franz von 1820-1895Suppe seemed to be possessed of a talent for the ridiculous, as well as for music. He wrote numerous so called operas, but one of his critics said that his works reached the astounding total of two grand operas, one hundred and sixty-five farces, comediettas and vaudevilles. His work is tuneful and light but is apt to be lacking in dignity.
191 Overture "Poet and Peasant"Practically the only composition of Suppe's ever played in this country is this overture. Altogether it is an attractive bit of writing, with its tuneful melodies and well-written harmonies. It is a general favorite with bands and orchestras, and has a host of admirers.
SVENDSEN, Johann Severin 1840-1911This eminent Norwegian composer displayed his talent at the early age of eleven years in a composition for the violin, which instrument he played until his career as an executant was cut short by his hand becoming paralyzed. He then turned to composition, and went to Leipsic where he studied under Hauptmann, David, Richter, and Reinecke.
Among his best-known compositions are his String Quartette in A Minor, String Octette in A Minor, and the Romanze for Violin and Orchestra in G.
144 Romanze in G, Op. 26Like Raff's Cavatina, this number was written for the violin, and similarly has become an absolute necessity to violin literature. It is beautifully melodious and teems with lovely contrasts and delightfully quaint harmonies, fitting the organ as though it had been written for it.
257 Somewhere a Voice is CallingThis is one of the popular ballads of the day. It is tuneful, harmonious, and the sentiment is pretty. What other charms are needed?
THOMAS, Charles Louis Ambroise 1811-1896A pupil at the Conservatoire, he won the first prize for piano in 1829; for harmony in 1830, and the grand prize in 1832. After writing a number of compositions in various forms, he took to grand opera, wrote voluminously and with much success. "Mignon" was perhaps his greatest success, being at least the one best known to the present generation. Others are occasionally performed, however, and excerpts from many of them are among the favorite songs of operatic singers.
140 Gavotte from MignonThis lovely gavotte from Thomas' best-known opera has been a favorite with organists for many years. Its charm lies in its daintiness and grace of rhythm as well as in the innate beauty of the melody.
336 Raymond OvertureThis is the overture to an opera which was first produced on June 5, 1851. It is known now only as a concert overture, and is one of the best of the school to which it belongs. In the present arrangement the colorful scoring of the composer is well brought out and the result is charming.
THOME, Francis 1850-1909A French composer whose compositions betray both his origin and the source of his education. They have the grace characteristic of the French and are charming bits of melody. Thome was a teacher and critic as well as a composer and resided in Paris.
160 Simple Aveu, Op. 25The usual translation of the title, "Simple Confession'" gives a very good idea of the intent of this composition. It is a sort of song without words which sings itself into one's memory to stay.
157 SerenadeThis appealing serenade was originally written for flute and horn, with orchestral accompaniment. While not a great composition, it nevertheless appeals to many people through its tuneful and restful qualities. As heard on the organ it is very enjoyable.
TOSTI, Francesco Paolo 1846-This very prolific song writer was of Italian birth, as his name would indicate. He studied violin and composition at the Royal College in Naples, and at the same school progressed rapidly as a singer. It was as a singer that he was later to become famous. After several visits to London, he finally settled there and became singing instructor to the royal family. He has written nothing but songs, many of which are very beautiful and deservedly popular.
193 Good-byeTosti seems to have caught the spirit of Whyte- Melville's poem, and has produced a very lovely song which is known the world over. It has stood the test of time, and there are as yet no evidences of waning popularity.
TSCHAIKOWSKY, Peter Iljitch 1840-1893There are two classes of Russian composers; that which pays little heed to traditional and accepted musical forms, but which asserts a passionate nationalism easily recognized by wild melodies and weird harmonies, and that which recognizes the beauties and value of accepted forms, but still retains the Slavic characteristics. Of the latter class, Tschaikowsky was the greatest.
He did not take up the study of music as a vocation until after he ltad graduated from a school of jurisprudence, and had received an appointment from the Ministry of Justice, at the age of nineteen. He became a pupil of Rubinstein in composition, and of Zaremba in counterpoint. Among his compositions will be found music in nearly all forms and for all combinations of instruments and voices.
171 Allegro non troppo (First Movement) from Pathetique Symphony (No.6)There is nothing in symphonic form which overshadows this great work in popular favor. It would be difficult to find a person who does not respond to some part of it. Tschaikowsky's brother, Modest, speaks of this symphony as an "act of exorcism" whereby Peter cast out all the dark spirits which had possessed him in the preceding years. It is certainly no less a work of the heart than of the mind.
324 Allegro Molto Vivace (3d Movement) from Pathetique Symphony No.6The beginning of this movement so strongly suggests the orthodox Scherzo form that one would expect nothing else on the first hearing. When this Symphony was being worked out in the composer's mind, he wrote his nephew, Vladimir Davidov, to whom he eventually dedicated it, "There will be much that is novel as regards form in this work." He fulfilled his promise in this movement as well as in the finale. After only eight measures of the wildest sort of a theme which alternates between the strings and wood winds, two measures of what is to develop into the dominating theme of the whole movement are heard. These two themes either in rhythmic or melodic form are almost never absent from beginning to end. One or two others assert themselves momentarily, but inevitably succumb to the rush of the first theme and the incessant trudge of the second. In the development of thematic matter, this whole work is very remarkable. The composer believed it to be his greatest work, and wrote of it, "without exaggeration I have put my whole soul into this work."
256 Andante from String Quartette-Op.11All the great composers displayed a fondness and reverence for the string quartette form which resulted in their putting their very best efforts in this form. This Andante is one of the loveliest of slow movements. There is but little polyphonic writing in it, but the most luscious harmonies compensate for any lack of contrapuntal work. The second theme is one of extreme beauty, and is largely responsible for the popularity this number enjoys among the laity and profession.
263 Chant Sans ParolesThis "Song Without Words" is an example of the luscious melody of which Tschaikowsky was capable. The middle part with its imitation in the octave is splendidly brought out in the roll, and serves to heighten the contrast between the two themes.
358 March from the "Nut Cracker Suite"This entire ballet, "Casse-Noisette," which was written for the Russian Imperial Opera, comprises fifteen numbers. It was the composer himself who selected what he considered the best numbers and grouped them into the suite from which this March is taken. This Suite is often played by large orchestras and is a very general favorite with concert goers.
This March is noble and rugged and lacks none of the essentials of a fine March. It is distinctly Russian in style, and is altogether a charming composition. The organ gives it from the roll in a manner not at all disappointing to those who have heard it from a large orchestra and who are familiar with its startling color effects.
359 "Valse des Fleurs" from "Nut Cracker Suite"In this number the composer has broken away from all restraint, and given himself over to a riot of tone color. The thematic material would scarcely stand alone as a sample of Tschaikowsky's work. In fact, it is little above commonplace. But results count, and a more exquisitely charming bit of music could not be found. Here the composer has shown himself to be a master workman and he has used all the tools supplied him by the modern orchestra. In fact, he was the first to introduce the Celesta as an orchestral instrument, and it made its first appearance in this Suite.
360 "Danse Russe" and "Danse des Mirlitons" from the "Nut Cracker Suite"The "Danse Russe," the first of the two numbers on this roll is one of those impetuous Russian dances which are familiar to most of us. The characteristic rhythm of a long note followed by two short ones is well adapted to the increasingdury of the dance, which finishes in the peculiar Russian fashion. The second number, "Danse des Mirlitons," is in a much more delicate vein, and appropriately so, for it is a dance of the toys or automatons. Here is displayed again the wonderful imagination of the composer. The exquisite color effect, and dainty rhythms form a delightful combination, and the roll is altogether satisfactory.
259 Admiration (Tango)For those who like to dance the tango, this number will be found all that can be desired. It is one of the very popular tangoes.
327 "Drink to Me Only with Thine Eyes" (Old English Air.)As to who was the composer of this wonderful song, there is much speculation. History does not record his name, but this fact does not detract from our enjoyment of it. Ben Jonson wrote the poem, and the poetic sentiment of the words is so well matched by the tune that it would be a crime to sing the words to any other tune, or to use the tune for any other words.
328 Loch Lomond (Old Scotch Song)There is perhaps no better known Scotch song than this one, and certainly none more deserving of popularity. It is a regrettable fact that the identity of the composer is unknown, for his work has become a classic. The roll renders it in a manner second only to the human voice.
VERDI, Giuseppe 1813-1901Why not the "Grand Old Man" of music? We have the "Grand Old Man" of everything else! Surely none deserves the title better than Verdi. He came into the world surrounded by poverty, and had to fight for his very existence. Artistic surroundings were unknown to him, but his genius was of the sort which stands the test of fire and triumphs over every obstacle. His chief delight when a child was, singularly, to follow a grind organ when one passed through the village. Little knew he that in after life many of his tunes would be played on these abominations. It's a long and sad story, but a wonderful one, and there is nothing stranger in fiction. Trouble was his in great measure. Let him tell of the death of his wife and two children: "In a very little over two months, three persons so very dear to me had disappeared forever. I was alone! My family had been destroyed; and in the midst of these trials I had to fulfill my engagement and write a comic opera." The opera was a failure, but failure is a stimulus to genius. "Otello" and "Falstaff" are Verdi's two last and greatest operas, and both were written at about eighty years of age. This feat is absolutely without precedent. Surely was he the "Grand Old Man" of music.
123 Marchfrom AidaMany operatic composers have realized the opportunities presented by the march form for effective writing. Verdi, in this instance, availed himself of all the arts and crafts of the stage, as well as of his own cleverness in the production of one of the most pompous and picturesque examples of martial music. This march is from the second act of Aida, and celebrates the return of the warrior Radames from a victorious campaign against the Ethiopians.
178 Quartette from RigolettoThis quartette from Verdi's most popular opera has commanded the attention and admiration of audiences from the time of the first production of the opera in 1851. With Handel's "Messiah" and Rossini's "Barber of Seville," it stands as one of the greatest feats of rapid composing. In exactly forty days from the time Verdi received the libretto, the score was finished. The quartette shares with "La Donna e mobile" the approbation which both deserve.
354 Selections from Il TrovatoreAt the first performance of this opera at the Teatro Apollo on January 19, 1853, it was given the stamp of public approval. The fine tunes which have been made familiar to us as much through the agency of the ubiquitous hand organ and street piano as by any other agency, have long since proved that they have in them the stuff which makes them "stick." Verdi was was so prodigal with his gift of melody, which is so simple and catchy, that one is apt to overlook the gorgeous harmonies he often uses. Of course the prime essential of an opera-especially an Italian opera, at the time Il Trovatore was written-was melody, and as a result of the prevailing style many beautiful melodies have come down to us which we should not have had if the present Italian style had been in vogue at that time.
WAGNER, Wilhelm Richard 1813-1883A volume would not suffice to give any idea of the wonderful musical and literary activity of this man. He was perhaps the busiest of all composers because he was not content to simply compose the music to his operas, but must write the librettos, also. It was necessary, too, that he should have much to say about the staging and costumeing, for his work was so absolutely new and unique that traditional methods would not do. Wagner owed to Liszt, whose son-in-lae he later became, much of the recognition he received during his life. Liszt was one of the first to discover Wagner's genius and his (Liszt's) standing in the musical world made it possible, too, for him to insist that the public should hear and accept Wagner. Without such assistance Wagner would have had a harder time of it than he did, and his pugnacious disposition would probably have shelved him as a popular idol for many years. With the support of Liszt, he could not be kept out of the place to which his genius rightfully entitled him.
108 Minster March from LohengrinAn example of dignified writing such as we would expect from the pen of Wagner. The charming opera from which this is taken was first produced at Weimar in 1850 by Liszt, and from that time has grown in public favor to the point of being a standard in the repertoire of all opera companies.
113 Vorspiel-LohengrinIt is doubtful if any other orchestral number is so frequently played on the organ. So admirably does it fit the organ, that one would think Wagner had the organ in mind when he wrote it. The history of the Holy Grail was the basis of the inspiration and it is probable that n9thing more ethereal has ever been written.
210 Lohengrin, Introduction to Act IIIThis is another example of Wagner's charming wedding music. It is intended to depict the happiness and gaiety of the festivities attending the wedding of Elsa and Lohengrin.
114 Prize Song-MeistersingerThis best-known excerpt from the Meistersingers is the song with which Walther wins Eva as a bride. The song comes to Walther as a dream, and he sings it on the advice of Hans Sachs in competition with the Meistersingers, the prize being Eva, the daughter of Pogner, the goldsmith.
117 Funeral March from Die GotterdammerungThis wonderful piece of orchestral writing is composed of the principal themes of the opera which have to do with Siegfried's life. It is solemn in the extreme and very dignified. In fact, just such music as one could wish might accompany the funeral procession of the hero Siegfried.
115 Abschied und FeurzauberThis is said to be one of Wagner's best efforts at descriptive writing. Whether it depicts the circle of fire with which Wotan causes Brunhilde to be protected is not a matter for comment here. For our purposes. it will suffice to say that from a musical viewpoint it is highly satisfactory even with the descriptive idea eliminated.
195 Overture to Tannhauser"Tannhauser" was first produced at Dresden in 1845, and was anything but an unqualified success. Critics of the time seemed united in an effort to condemn it; even some of the singers pronounced their parts impossible. Tastes have changed since then and the beginning of the change dates from about the time that Liszt began to use his enormous influence in Wagner's behalf, and but for Liszt it is quite probable that Wagnerian operas would not now enjoy the vogue they do. The Overture to "Tannhauser" is a stupendous effort and it will live for centuries. As a concert number it is indispensable, and as an introduction to the opera it falls nothing short of requirements.
122 Evening Star Song-TannhauserWhile this wonderful song is in marked contrast to much of Wagner's work, it only serves to further prove the greatness of the man. Nothing could establish his case more conclusively than the charming simplicity of this song. It is sung by Wolfram on the departure of Elizabeth and is a prayer that she may be borne beyond the vale of sorrow.
130 March-TannhauserThis is a striking piece of martial music written to accompany the arrival of the guests at a singing festival. After a fanfare by the trumpeters, the noblemen and their followers march in, bowing as they pass their hosts, Landgrave, Hermann and Elizabeth. When the hall is filled, all join in singing with the orchestra, producing a stirring climax of the sort for which Wagner is famous.
320 Vorspiel-Tristan and IsoldeThis is the overture to an opera which contains by common consent some of the most beautiful music ever written. The story of this famous number is furnished by Wagner himself, and we quote it in full.
"A primitive old love poem, which, far from having become extinct, is constantly faahioning itself anew, and has been adopted by every European language of the Middle Ages, tells us of Tristan ood Isolde. Tristan, the faithful vassal, woos for his king her for whom he dare not avow his own love, Isolde, who powerless to do otherwise than obey the wooer, follows him as bride to his lord. Jealous of this infringement of her rights. the Goddess of Love takes her revenge. As the result of a happy mistake she allows the couple to take of the love potion, which in accordance with the custom of the times and by way of precaution, the mother had prepared for the husband who should marry her daughter from political motives, and which, by the burning desire which suddenly inflames them after tasting it, opens their eyes to the truth, and leads to the avowal that for the future they belong only to each other; Henceforth there is no end to the longing, the demands, the joys and the woes of love. The world, power, fame, splendor, honor, knighthood, fidelity, friendship, all are dissipated like an empty dream. One thing only remains-longing, longing, insatiable longing, forever springing up anew, pining ood thirsting. Death, which means passing away, perishing, never awaking, their only deliverance! Powerless the heart sinks back to languish in longing, in longing without attaining; for each attainment only begets new longing, until in the last stage of weariness the foreboding of the highest joy of dying, of no longer existing, of the last escape into the wonderful kingdom from which we are furthest off when we are most strenuously striving to enter therein. Shall we call it Death? or is it the hidden wonder world, from out of which an ivy and vine, entwined with each other, grew up upon Triatan's and Isolde's grave, as the legend tells us?"
292 Tristan and Isolde LiebestodIsolden's Liebestod, or, as translated, "Isolde's Love Death." This is the final scene of the opera. The stage is set, a bleak courtyard of Tristan's castle. Tristan reclines upon a couch, wounded by Melot's sword. His henchman, Kurwenal, has carried Tristan to this retreat, where he is awaiting a ship bearing Isolde, who is coming to join her wounded lover. As the ship arrives, Tristan, in his eagerness to see Isolde, rises from his couch, frantically clutches at the bandages with which his wounds are swathed, and bleeds to death at Isolde's feet. She tries to call her lover to life and, failing in this, sings this death song and sinks lifeless across his body.
This piece is tremendously popular, because of its tuneful and emotional qualities. The title, Liebestod (Love Death), is said to have been given it by Franz Liszt.
WALDTEUFEL, Emile 1837-This famous waltz writer studied at the Paris Conservatoire. He published his first two waltzes at his own ezpense, and they became so popular that he devoted his whole time to the writing of similar things, which ran into several hundreds.
246 Charming WaltzesSo many waltzes were written by this composer one would wonder that he did not run out of titles. He picked the right word to describe this set, however, and further comment is unnecessary.
247 To Thee WaltzesNo essential dance quality is lacking in this set of waltzes, and they will be found wonderfully effective on the organ.
WEBER, Carl Maria von 1786-1826Though Weber 'was a remarkable pianist, and made many contributions to piano literature, it is with the rise of the German opera that he is more particularly associated, and he was the first composer to create German musical liberty.
Weber belonged to a large family in which there was considerable musical talent. His father was something of a soldier, a player of the viola and double bass, and in fact was gifted along many lines. His mother was a good soprano singer.
Weber took his first important musical instruction in 1796 from J. P. Heuschkel, at that time court oboist and organist at Hildburghausen. Heusckkel gave him excellent training in piano playing. In 1798-1799 he studied composition, began concert playing and also composing, and in 1800 he wrote his first real opera, "Das Waldmadchen," which was followed by the opera "Peter Schmoll" in 1801-1802. He then pursued other studies, during which period he was closely associated with Vogler, an accomplished organist and musical instructor. He also met Beethoven. Haydn, and other players of note. In 1804 Weber became conductor at the theater in Breslau, which position he held for two years but left owing to some unpleasantness, particularly with his predecessor, Schnabel. He afterwards accepted a post as secretary to Duke Ludwig of Wurtemburg, at Stuttgart, but the Duke was a rather irresponsible man, and the environment of the court life at that time was rather unfavorable for Weber. In 1810 he incurred the King's displeasure and was banished. He then went to Mannheim and later to Darmstadt. His mind was at this time filled with ideas, and for the purpose of musical criticism he associated himself with Gottfried Weber and Meyerbeer. In 1811-1812 he made short visits to Munich, Prague and Berlin, and in the latter city, particularly he was received most favourably. He was appointed director of the Prague Theatre in 1813, but resigned in 1816 as this post did not enable hime to fully realize his ideals. He then accepted the directorship of the Dresden Theatre, which place he filled in an admirable way for a period of ten years. During his leadership here he finished his greatest oper, "Der Freischutz" in 1820. His health soon began to fail, and he went to Vienna, where he wrote "Euryanthe," and afterwards, "Oberon," In 1826 he visited England to conduct the first appearance of the latter opera in London, but owing to his poor health he was unable to return and died in that city.
138 Overture to Der FreischutzThis masterpiece is one of the finest examples of overture form. The opening eight measures are played by a string quartette, after which the lovely melody for horns, often referred to as the "Prayer from Der Freischutz," is heard. All of the themes used in the overture occur again in the opera except the introduction and the "Prayer." The weird theme immediately following the "Prayer," accompanied by a tremolo in the quartette of strings and pizzicati notes in the basses, announces the appearance of Samiel, the evil spirit. The restless, gloomy air in C minor is sung by Max, the young lover. After an episode of restlessness and uneasiness the storm breaks in a furious tutti in which all the instruments of the orchestra seem to try to outdo each other. In the midst of the storm is heard the lovely air sung by Agatha, after which the storm continues in a brighter key-E flat major. The overture concludes with a repetition of the happy and triumphant song of Agatha.
This overture is regarded by many as the most perfect overture ever written. From a standpoint of form and orchestral scoring it is unequaled.
152 Overture to EuryantheThis brilliant overture is about all that is ever heard of the opera to which it belongs. As an opera, "Euryanthe" was so completely overshadowed by the enormous success of its predecessor, "Der Freischutz," that it was a virtual fiasco. Time has failed to dim the beauties of the overture, however, and it will remain for a long time to come a favorite number at orchestral concerts.
161 Overture to OberonThere are no examples of orchestration which for careful workmanship and finish excel the Weber overtures. This overture is a veritable model of excellence, a paragon. As an opera, "Oberon" stands next to "Der Freischutz" in point of success.
342 Invitation to the DanceA very pretty example of professional etiquette is involved in the history of this number. A badly mutilated version of Weber's "Der Freischutz" was given in Paris which so aroused the ire of the musicians that a true production of the opera was demanded. It was necessary, however, that the spoken dialogue be set to music, and Berlioz was asked to do it. He consented on the condition that the original score and text be adhered to. The question of a ballet arose, and when Berlioz found that argument against it would not prevail, he found a very happy solution of the problem in the use of the "Invitation to the Dance." Berlioz' orchestration is the generally accepted orchestral arrangement, although a number of others have been made.
WHEELDON, H. A.
280 CantileneThis cantilene is a very delightful composition, and one deserving a much wider appreciation than it enjoys. As given from the organ by this roll, we are sure it will come into its own, for it is lovely indeed.
WILSON, Grenville Dean 1833-1897Grenville D. Wilson was a native of America. Born at Plymouth, Conn.; died at Nyack. N. Y. He composed and taught for many years and founded a number of choral societies. He wrote many compositions, including some well-known songs and some piano pieces which achieved popularity.
277 Chapel in the MountainsThis is a simple composition, bearing the title which clearly describes the composer's programme. Both the opening and the closing sections are devoted to the voicing of a melody that is simplicity itself. In the middle of the composition there is a hymn which furnishes an effective contrast. It was originally written as a piano piece and has been popular many years and is very effective on the organ.
WOLF-FERRARI, Ermanno 1876-Wolf-Ferrari-half German and half Italian by parentage-was born in Venice, but most of his education was obtained in Munich under Rheinberger. He began composing at the age of eight and at nineteen had finished his first opera. He is an extraordinarily talented composer and has won fame in America and Europe, the most popular of his operas being "The Jewels of the Madonna."
274 Intermezzo from "Jewels of the Madonna"This is a charming number in quick waltz time. It begins with a wild flourish, then follow a few bars of accompaniment as on a guitar, which is in turn followed by a passionate love song, the melody of which is most popular. A contrast is then introduced with the characteristics of a folk song. The two themes are then pitted against each other and skillfully merged. The finale starts with a rush, grows gentler and the music dies softly away as in a distance
WOLSTENHOLME, William 1865-This famous blind organist was born in Blackburn, England. He studied orgom under Dr. Dane of the Worcester Cathedral and the violin with Sir Edward Elgar. Upon the advice of Elgar, he devoted his whole time to the organ and became one of England's best-known organists. He is now organist and choirmaster at All Saints Church, London. Wolstenholme obtained the Oxford degree of Bachelor of Music in 1887.
295 CanzonaThis is a bit of song-like writing which is characteristic of this composer. Its simplicity is its charm, and its irresistible swing makes an immediate and telling appeal. It is highly effective as arranged in this roll.
YON, PietroPietro Yon was born in Settimo, Vittone (Piedmont, Italy). He received his first musical instruction at the age of six years, from Angelo Burbatti, organist of the Cathedral at Ivrea. At fourteen he went to Milan to study with Polibio Fumagalli of the Royal Conservatory. In a contest for admission to the Conservatory at Turin, he won the first scholarship in piano, organ and composition. Four years later he entered the Academy of St. Cecelia in Rome, and graduated with highest honors. After two years spent as substitute organist at the Vatican, he accepted the appointment as organist and choirmaster at St. Francis Xavier, New York City. His enormous technique makes him one of the most brilliant of organists, and his compositions bear the stamp of his unmistakable musicianship.
341 Christmas in SicilyThe name of this composition suggests an atmosphere no more effectively than does the music. The Chimes are first heard in a fournote motive, after which a delightful Siciliano for two voices is heard. This is followed by a lively air which is so true to its intent as to almost make one see as well as hear the piper. Still another theme is used over a droning bass, giving way to the piping strain, the Siciliano and the Chime theme. It is a delightful composition.
HYMNS235 Abide with Me. Eventide, Monk
240 Onward, Christian Soldiers, Sullivan
241 Lead, Kindly Light, Dykes
242 Nearer, My God, to Thee, Mason
243 Holy Night, Gruber
244 Holy, Holy, Holy, Dykes
343 Adeste Fideles, Portogallo (O Come, All Ye Faithful)
344 Jerusalem the Golden, Erving
4.0 INDEXIndex omitted.